Glossary / Тайлбар

 

The project team and Arts Council Mongolia are grateful to Krisztina Teleki and Zsuzsa Majer for the use of this Glossary. Krisztina Teleki and Zsuzsa Majer, one of the six survey teams for the national survey in 2007, compiled the Glossary in the course of conducting the survey of the Old and new Temples in Ikh Khuree (called Ulaanbaatar today) in 2005 and 2006. 
Монголын урлагийн зөвлөл энэхүү тайлбар зүүлтийг цахим хуудаснаа байрлуулах боломж олгосон Кристина Телеки, Жужа Мейер нарт талархаж байна. Энэ нь 2005-2006 онд их хүрээний хуучин сүм хийд өнөөгийн Улаанбаатар хотын шинэ сүм хийдийн талаарх судалгааг явуулахдаа боловсруулсан тайлбар толь юм. 
 
(Bogd) khan uul (MON)
(Bogd) khan mountain'; name of a holy mountain south of Ulaanbaatar.
 
(Burkhan bagsh) nomiin khürd ergüülsen düitsen = Choinkhor düitsen (MON)
Great day of the turning of the wheel of Dharma' commemorating the day when Buddha first preached the Dharma. It is held on the 4th of the last summer month; one of the four great days of Buddha (Burkhan bagshiin düitsen).
 
1-r bogd; 1-r jewtsündamba khutagt; Luwsan dambii jaltsan = Öndör gegeen Zanabazar; Zanabazar (MON) 
blo-bzang bstan-pa'i rgyal-mtshan (TIB)
 
The 1st jewtsündamba khutagt. Living between 1635-1723; Luwsan dambii jaltsan or Öndör gegeen Zanabazar ('His Brightness; the vajra/thunderbolt of wisdom’; Sanskrit: Jnanavajra) was the most influential Person in the spreading and flourishing of Tibetan Buddhism in Mongolia. He was descended from Chinggis khan being the grandson of Awtai khan. After studying in Tibetan monastic universities; he received initiations from both the 5th Dalai Lama and the 4th Panchen Lama. He was recognized as the reincarnation of the Tibetan master; Jonon Darnad (Taranatha). He was given the title of jewtsündamba khutagt by the 5th Dalai Lama. In 1651 he laid the foundation for the Mongolian capital by establishing his residence camp; Örgöö (‘palace; residence’) surrounding it by seven aimags and later adding four more.(It moved many times; becoming known as Ikh khüree in 1706; before settling permanently in 1855.) In 1654 he founded the main assembly hall (Tsogchin); called Riwogejigandanshaddublin in Khentii Mountain. He also established a retreat in Khangai Mountain; near his first home; called Duwkhan/Töwkhön. He was an eminent and prolific sculptor and artist founding the Mongolian or Zanabazar school in several disciplines of fine art. He invented the ''Soyombo'' (Sanskrit: svyambhu) and the vertical quadrangular (khewteekh dörwöljin) script and by composing numerous prayers and religious texts; recited at daily chanting up to this day; he reformed the way chanting was conducted in Mongolian monasteries. His title; Öndör gegeen; means 'his brightness'. Zanabazar is a Mongolian distorted form of the Sanskrit Jnanavajra ('the vajra/thunderbolt of wisdom').
 
2-r bogd; 2-r jewtsündamba khutagt; Luwsan dambii donme (MON) 
blo-bzang bstan-pa'i sgron-me (TIB)
 
The 2nd jewtsündamba khutagt. Reincarnation of Öndör gegeen Zanabazar; religious leader of Mongolian Buddhism living between 1724-1758. During his period his residence moved many times: from Ugtaal Jargalant to Khujirtbulangiin Jargalant (1729); Burgaltai (1730); Sögnögör (1732); Terelj (1733); Uliastai (1734); Khüi Mandal (1736); Khuntsal (1740); Üdleg (1742); Ögöömör (1743); Selbe (1747) and Uliastai (1756). During his reign 11 new aimags were added to the original 11; and the Erdene shanzodwiin yaam (Administration of Ecclesiastical Estate) was established to manage the affairs of the subordinated areas. The khutagt founded the first tantric assembly (Jüd datsan; 1739) and the first philosophical assembly (Tsanid datsan; 1756) of the capital. His relics were kept in Dambadarjaa monastery as the Manchu emperor built this monastery in honour of his memory.
 
32 kharanga magtaal = 32 magtaal (MON)
‘32 eulogies’; ceremony during which eulogies of buddhas; bodhisattvas; saints; Tibetan and Mongolian masters are recited. It takes place during the ‘great festival days of Buddha’s miracle showing’ (Burkhan bagshiin rid khuwilgaan üzüülsen ikh düitsen ödrüüd or Choinpürel jon aa); which are conducted for the fifteen days of the Lunar New Year. They commemorate Buddha’s defeat of the six heretical masters by using mysterious methods including miracles .
 
3-r bogd; 3-r jewtsündamba khutagt; Ish dambii nyam (MON) 
ye-shes bstan-pa'i nyi-ma (TIB)
 
The 3rd jewtsündamba khutagt. Religious leader of Mongolian Buddhism living between 1758-1773. During his period the capital was moved from Uliastai (1756) to Selbe (1762); then to Khüi Mandal (1772). He founded the medical monastic (Mamba datsan; 1760) in Khüree. During his reign a Mongol amban and a Manchu amban were appointed and lived in Ikh khüree. The relics of the khutagt were kept in Dambadarjaa monastery.
 
4-r bogd; 4-r jewtsündamba khutagt; Luwsan tüwden wanchug jigmed jamts (MON) 
blo-bzang thub-bstan dbang-phyug 'jigs-med rgya-mtsho (TIB)
 
The 4th jewtsündamba khutagt. Religious leader of Mongolian Buddhism living between 1775-1813. During his period Khüree moved from Khüi Mandal to the bank of Selbe River in 1778; i.e. the present site of Ulaanbaatar. After studying in Tibetan monastic universities he founded an astrological monastic school (Zurkhain datsan) in Khüree in 1789. He was a highly intelligent and well qualified monk; attaining the agramba degree; the doctor of Vajrayana tantric studies; and was the composer of numerous religious works. He founded the Dechingalaw temple for the ceremonies of Kalachakra (Düinkhor) in 1806; and re-named the tantric school; which was founded by the 2nd jewtsündamba; as Badma yogo. In 1807; he established a hermitage called Shaddublin/Shaddüwlin in a valley on the outskirts of Khüree. In 1809; he established the second philosophical monastic school in Gandan next to first one. During his time as well as being a religious center; Khüree became the place of highest civil authority in the country; with Chinese merchants establishling permanent residences there. His relics were kept in Amarbayasgalant monastery but were destroyed in the purges.
 
5-r bogd; 5-r jewtsündamba khutagt; Luwsan tsültim jigmed dambii jaltsan (MON) 
blo-bzang tshul-khrims 'jigs-med bstan-pa'i rgyal-mtshan (TIB)
 
The 5th jewtsündamba khutagt. Religious leader of Mongolian Buddhism lived between 1815-1841. During his reign; in 1839; the capital moved to a site near Tolgoit. The khutagt renewed the two philosophical monastic schools and; in 1837; named one Dashchoimbel; the first one; and the other Güngaachoilin; the second one. Maitreya temple was erected as well. Gandantegchenlin temple and the palace of the 5th jewtsündamba khutagt was built here in 1838 in front of them. Tsagaan süm (Güngaadejidlin) and Pandellin (Narokhajidiin süm) were also built in 1840. In this time about 10.000 monks belonged to Ikh khüree. After his death; his relics were kept in Gandan monastery.
 
6-r bogd; 6-r jewtsündamba khutagt; Luwsan baldan jaltsan / Luwsan dambii jaltsan (MON) 
blo-bzang dpal-ldan rgyal-mtshan / blo-bzang bstan-pa'i rgyal-mtshan (TIB)
 
The 6th jewtsündamba khutagt. Religious leader of Mongolian Buddhism who lived between 1843-1848. During his short lifetime; the capital was situated in Tolgoit. His relics were kept in Dambadarjaa monastery.
 
7-r bogd; 7-r jewtsündamba khutagt; Agwaan choiji wanchug prinlei jamts (MON) 
ngag-dbang chos-kyi dbang-phyug 'phrin-las rgya-mtsho (TIB)
 
The 7th jewtsündamba khutagt. Religious leader of Mongolian Buddhism who lived between 1849-1868 (or 1850-1870). During his short reign; in 1855 the capital city moved back to the bank of the Selbe River; which became the permanent site of the capital city of Mongolia. Up to 1903; 8 new aimags were added to the existing 22. The relics of the khutagt were kept in Gandan monastery.
 
8-r bogd; 8-r jewtsündamba khutagt; Agwaan luwsan choiji nyima danzan wanchug = Bogd khaan (MON) 
ngag-dbang blo-bzang chos-kyi nyi-ma bstan-'dzin dbang-phyug; (TIB)
 
The 8th jewtsündamba khutagt. Religious leader of Mongolian Buddhism living between 1870-1924. After the collapse of the Manchu empire; in addition to his religious role; he also became the political leader of the Mongolian state on 29 November 1911 bearing the title bogd khaan ('saint khaan'). His reign (1911-1921) can be considered as the heyday of Mongolian Buddhism. In the capital city; called Niislel khüree at that time; he established the Green Palace; a temple in honour of Avalokiteshvara (Migjidjanraiseg datsan); the third philosophical monastic school (Idgaachoinzinlin datsan) in Gandan monastery and the temple complex of Choijin lama. A further three aimags were established during his reign bringing the total in the capital to 30. The last one to be set up was dedicated to his wife; Ekh Dagina. He encouraged the building of many temples in the countryside and made efforts to ensure the monk community maintained the strict moral code (though he himself was infamous for his dissipated way of life and lax morals). He composed many religious texts. He was overthrown in 1921 by the Communists and died in 1924. After his death his relics were kept in Gandan monastery.
 
9-r bogd; 9-r jewtsündamba khutagt; Jambal namdol choiji jaltsan (MON) 
'jam-dpal rnam-grol chos-kyi rgyal-mtshan (TIB)
 
The latest living reincarnation of the jewtsündamba khutagt (also called bogd gegeen); Tibetan Buddhism’s third highest incarnation after the Dalai and Panchen lamas; who was the highest Buddhist dignitary in Mongolia up to 1924. The 9th incarnation; currently living in Dharamsala; was officially recognized in Mongolia in 1991; though he was originally recognized in 1932 by the Reting Rinpoche in Tibet. He is considered to be the leader of Mongolian Buddhists. The 9th jewtsündamba khutagt visited Mongolia in 1999.
 
Adisha (MON) 
mar-me mdzad; a-ti-sha (TIB)
 
Atisha (982-1054); the great Indian master; initiator of Kadampa (Tib. bka’-gdams-pa) Sect of Tibetan Buddhism. Also known as Jobo Atisha (jowoo Adish; Tib. Jo-ba a-ti-sha)
 
adislaga (MON) 
byin-rlabs (TIB)
 
blessing'. The ceremonial consecration of offerings; offering cakes; masks; robes; and other accessories (e.x. before the Tsam dance; or of the new year's offering cakes).
 
ag (MON) 
sngags (TIB)
 
mantra; dharani; magic formula
 
ag tarni (MON) 
gsang sngags (TIB)
 
secret mantra; tantric teaching
 
agramba (MON) 
sngags-rams-pa (TIB)
 
Doctor of tantric or vajrayana studies; name of a degree that can be obtained at tantra monastic schools; a learned scholar holding this degree.
 
agrim (MON) 
sngags rim (TIB)
 
stages of mantras; tantric stages
 
agui (MON)
cave
 
agwa / awag = see also sanga (MON) 
sngags-pa (TIB)
 
Follower and practitioner of tantra. Tantric practitioner using magic formulas or mantras.
 
Agwa datsan = Awag datsan / Awga datsan = Akhu datsan (MON) 
rgyud grwa tshang (TIB)
 
Tantric monastic school; monastic school specialized in tantric studies.
 
Agwaanbaldan = Linsrai gawj Agwaanbaldan (MON) 
(dka'-bcu) ngag-dbang dpal-ldan (TIB)
 
Linsrai gawj Agwaanbaldan; a famous Mongolian philosopher monk living between 1797-1864. Had been a tsorj of Ikh khüree between 1836-1847; also known as Erdene tungalag tsorj.
 
Agwaandorjiew (MON) 
ngag-dbang rdo-rje (TIB)
 
A famous Buryat monk living between 1853/54-1938; who obtained lkhaaramba degree in Lhasa and became an tutor advisor of the 13th Dalai Lama. He founded a Buddhist monastery in Saint-Petersburg.
 
Agwaankhaidaw; khamba nomon/nomun khan = Jadariin khamba Agwaankhaidaw; Khamba nomun khan Agwaankhaidaw (MON) 
ngag-dbang mkhas-grub (TIB)
 
A famous khamba nomon khan living between 1779-1838; who was awarded the rawjambaa degree in Tibet. Also known as Jadariin ikh khamba Agwaankhaidaw; 1779-1838; abbot of Jadar aimag. Wrote the most famous Tsam handbook used in Mongolia.
 
Agwaantüwden (MON) 
ngag-dbang thub-bstan (TIB)
 
A Mongolian monk scholar living in the 18-19th centuries; known also as Wangain rawjambaa.
 
aimag (MON)
1.Territorial unit; county or province of a country. 2. The residential district of a monastic city with its own temple.
 
airag (MON)
kumis; fermented mare's milk
 
Akhu datsan = see Agwa datsan; Awag datsan / Awga datsan (MON) 
rgyud grwa tshang (TIB)
 
alban tushaal (MON)
official position or rank
 
albanii choijin / goliin choijin (MON) 
chos-skyong (TIB)
 
official; main oracle' (used for the state oracle)
 
ald (MON)
A linear measure unit; 1 ald = 1.6 m.
 
Altan Ganjuur (MON) 
bka'-'gyur gser-po (TIB)
 
Golden Ganjuur'; Kanjur written in gold
 
am (MON)
mouth; valley
 
Amaa (MON) 
a-ma (TIB)
 
mother; mum'; a female deity with one tooth; a form of Lkham.
 
Amarbayasgalant (MON)
Name of a monastery in Selenge aimag that was built at the initiation of the Manchu emperor in the 18th century in honour of Öndör gegeen. It housed the relics of Öndör gegeen and the 4th jewtsündamba khutagt until the purges.
 
amban (MON)
Governor; the term literally meaning ‘great’ in Manchu. Until 1911 the Manchus were represented in Mongolia by ambans. Manchu and Mongol governors were appointed not only in Urga but also in Khowd; Uliastai; Khyagt; where Manchus and Chinese settled in colonies. Governors had to report to the Manchu emperor.
 
Andinmen khaalga / Amgalan enkhiin khaalga (MON)
‘The gate of (eternal) peace’
 
Anduu / Amduu (MON) 
a-mdo (TIB)
 
Amdo; name of the north-eastern Tibetan province
 
ane (MON) 
a-ne (TIB)
 
Buddhist nun (honorific term).
 
Angi Shagdar; tsanid lowon (MON) 
… phyag-rdor (TIB)
 
Famous Mongolian monk living between 1869-1935; born in Gow’ mergen wangiin khoshuu; Tüsheet khan aimag (present Dornogow’ aimgiin Saikhan dulaan sum). After teaching in Ölgiin khiid; he became a teacher at Dashchoimbel datsan. Also known as Tsanid lowon.
 
arawnailakh (MON) 
rab-gnas (TIB)
 
Consecration ritual for a new temple; a stupa; a statue or a picture.
 
arga bilig / arga bileg (MON)
method and wisdom; practice and theory; male and female principles; solar and lunar principles
 
argiin toolol (MON)
Solar calendar; the European way of reckoning time.
 
Ariun nandin shüteeniin süm (MON)
‘the temple of the pure precious object of worship’; name of one of the temples of Choijin lamiin süm.
 
artel' (MON)
Communal handicraft co-operative; established in the 1930-50's in Mongolia.
 
Arwan khangal (MON) 
bstan-bsrung (TIB)
 
In Mongolian Buddhism the group of the ten wrathful deities protecting the Buddhist Teaching. Also the name of the ceremony performed in honour of them.
 
Ar'yaabal(a) (MON) 
thugs-rje chen-po (TIB)
 
‘the great compasionate one’; Aryapala; Mahakarunika; an epithet of Avalokiteshvara
 
Awag datsan / Awga datsan = see Agwa datsan; Akhu datsan (MON) 
rgyud grwa tshang (TIB)
 
Awid (MON) 
'od-dpag-med (TIB)
 
Boundless light'; Amitabha Buddha. One of the five Dhyani buddhas. His realm is called Sukhavati (see the term Diwaajin).
 
Awidiin chogo (MON) 
‘od-dpag-med-kyi cho-ga (TIB)
 
A ceremony aimed at clearing away all sins and praying for the deceased to take rebirth in the paradise of Amitabha Buddha.
 
awshig = wan (MON) 
dbang (TIB)
 
Initiation; empowerment; the term being derived from Sanskrit abhisheka. It means conferring the power or authorization to practice Tantric teachings.
 
Awtai khan; Awtai sain khan (MON)
A propagator of Buddhism; who lived between 1534-1589; founder of Erdene zuu; the first monastery in Mongolia. A descendant of Chinggis khan; Öndör gegeen Zanbazar's great-grandfather.
 
Awtai sain khanii örgöö (Alag baiw) = Baruun örgöö (MON)
The palace of Awtai sain khan; which was situated west of the Yellow Palace in the capital city
 
Ayuush = Tsewegmed / Tsegmid (MON) 
tshe-dpag-med (TIB)
 
Boundless life'; Amitayus; a buddha of longevity; a form of Amitabha. He is depicted in red colour; holding a vase in his hand with the nectar (arshaan) of immortality.
 
Baatar beil = Büüwei baatar (MON)
One of the two Mongolian heroes Büüwei baatar and Shijir baatar; connected to Öndör gegeen and Awtai sain khan. Also appears in Tsam dances.
 
Badamjunai = Lowon; Lowon Badamjunai (MON) 
slob-dpon pad-ma 'byung-gnas (TIB)
 
Padmasambhava; the 'Lotus Born Guru'; also known as Guru Rinpoche. He lived in the 8th century and introduced Buddhism to Tibet.
 
badarchin (MON)
Itinerant monk going on pilgrimages on foot. The expression originited from Sanskrit patra 'alms-bowl'; as these monks lived on alms.
 
Badma yogo datsan (MON) 
padma yo-ga grwa-tshang (TIB)
 
A kind of Gürem datsan. In Ikh khüree it was situated in Gandan.
 
baga (MON)
small; little; younger; junior; second/vice (like in: baga unzad; baga gesgüi (second chanting master; second disciplinary master))
 
Baga dom (MON)
‘small festival’; name of a ceremony connected to philosophical exam dates
 
baishin (MON)
building; house
 
Baldan lkham = Lkham = Ökin tenger (MON) 
dpal-ldan lha-mo (TIB)
 
Glorious Goddess'; Shridevi one of the ten wrathful protector deities. Often used in Mongolian as Lkham; in a shortened form.
 
Baldanchoimbol (MON) 
dpal-ldan chos-'phel (TIB)
 
A Tibetan monk who came to Ikh khüree as a jawtüi lam of the jewtsündamba khutagt. Later he became the yonzon khamba; the tutor of the jewtsündamba khutagt. He bore the title khamba nomon khan from 1865-1899. His relics were kept in Yonzon khambiin süm in Ikh khüree and later placed to Choijiin lamiin süm.
 
balin = dorom (MON) 
gtor-ma (TIB)
 
Sacrifical offering cake; the term is derived from the Sanskrit word bali.
 
balin(giin) adislaga (MON) 
gtor-ma byin-rlabs (TIB)
 
'offering cake consecration'. The consecration of the new offering cakes (changed yearly) held before the Lunar New Year.
 
Banchin lam / Wanchin lam; Banchin erdene (MON) 
pan-chen bla-ma (TIB)
 
Panchen Lama; the second highest dignitary in Tibetan Buddhism
 
bansha / wanshü (MON) 
pan zhwa (TIB)
 
yellow coloured pandita hat; a conical pointed hat
 
banzai = jügder (MON) 
gtsug gtor (TIB)
 
A conical-shaped black crown worn with the jodwon; the five lobed crown showing the five Tathagata Buddhas. It is worn at particular tantric ceremonies. Sanskrit ushnisha.
 
Bar' lam Damtsigdorj / Bragri lam (Damtsigdorj)/ Bragiriin gegeen (MON) 
brag-ri bla-ma dam-tshig rdo-rje (TIB)
 
A great Mongolian monk and scholar living between 1781-1848; born in Gow’ mergen wangiin khoshuu of Tüsheet khan aimag (present Dundgow’ aimag; Saikhan owoo sum). He studied in Tibet as well as in Dashchoimbel datsan of Ikh khüree. Later he founded a monastery called Bragiriin khiid on the bank of Ongiin River on the Rocky Mountain (khadat uul; Tib. brag-ri). Among his works is a famous work on Lamrim; entitled Pandelamsan.
 
Baraishir = Sosorbaram (MON) 
so-sor ‘brang-ma (TIB)
 
Mahapratisara; name of a goddess
 
barga (MON)
An ethnic group living in the area of present east Mongolia (Dornod aimag) and Inner Mongolia.
 
bariin khashaa (MON)
Printing courtyard; courtyard of the printing house
 
barkhan (MON) 
par-khang (TIB)
 
printing house
 
barmarawjin / barmarawjün (MON) 
bar-ma rab-byung (TIB)
 
pre-novice vow of a monk; intermediate renunciate
 
Baron Ungern von Sternberg (MON)
White Russian army leader; who aspired to the restoration of the monarchy in Russia. He came to Mongolia in 1920; and occupied the Mongolian capital city ruling Mongolia for a short period. He and his army were famous for their brutality. The Red army and the Mongol army then recaptured Khüree in July 1921; chasing out Ungern.
 
baruun (MON)
(of the) right-side; west(ern)
 
Baruun khüree (MON)
1. Western part of Ikh khüree; used also for Gandan; 2. Name of a monastery (also known as Shankh); founded by Öndör gegeen around 1650; in the present Öwörkhangai aimag; Kharkhorin sum.
 
Baruun örgöö = see Awtai sain khanii örgöö (Alag baiw) (MON)
 
Bat örshil (örgökh) = Danshig (MON) 
brtan bzhugs (TIB)
 
firmly established'; ceremony of longevity; blessing ceremony peformed for someone's long life
 
Bat tsagaan (MON)
‘enormous white’; name of the main assembly hall in Ikh khüree designed originally by Öndör gegeen Zanabazar.
 
Bayanzürkh (uul) (MON)
Wealthy heart (mountain)'; name of a holy mountain east of Ulaanbaatar.
 
Bazarsad = Dorjsembe (MON) 
rdo-rje sems-dpa' (TIB)
 
Vajrasattva. A white-coloured sambhogakaya buddha who embodies all of the five or hundred buddha families. He is also a support for purification practices.
 
Begtse = Jagon Jamsran = Jamsran = Ulaan sakhius (MON) 
beg-tse (TIB)
 
Another name for Jamsran or the Red Protector; one of the 10 wrathful deities.
 
beil / beel (MON)
third level noble rank
 
beis / bees (MON)
forth level noble rank
 
Bereewen / Bereiwen (MON) 
'bras-spungs (TIB)
 
Drepung; one of the three main Tibetan Gelukpa monasteries in Tibet; and also the name of a Mongolian monastery in the present Khentii aimag.
 
Bernag Gombo / Bernag Makhgal (MON) 
ber-nag mgon-po / mgon-po ber-nag-can (TIB)
 
An aspect of Mahakala ’with the black cloak’; the main protector deity of the Karma Kagyüpa Sect.
 
bicheech (MON)
clerk; scribe
 
Bilgiin melmii (MON)
Title of a religious newspaper issued by Gandan monastery.
 
bilgiin toolol (MON)
Lunar calendar; the Tibetan-Mongolian way of reckoning time.
 
bilig baramid (MON) 
shes-rab-kyi pha-rol-tu phyin-pa (TIB)
 
Gone/arrived to the other shore'; Prajnyaparamita; transcendent knowledge; the famous mahayana teaching.
 
bitüün (MON)
30th or the last day of a lunar month; also the 30th day of the last winter month; the last day of the year before the lunar new year.
 
Biz’yaa = Jügder namjil / Jügdor namjil (MON) 
gtsug-tor rnam-rgyal (TIB)
 
Ushnishavijaya; one of the goddesses of longevity
 
Bod’ möriin zereg = Lamrim (MON) 
lam-rim (TIB)
 
gradual path' system introduced by Tsongkhapa; and the title of his main work. It means a gradual path to enlightment.
 
bogd (MON)
saint'. Also another title of the jewtsündamba khutagts; Tibetan Buddhism’s third highest incarnation after the Dalai and Panchen lamas; and the highest Buddhist dignitary in Mongolia.
 
bogd gegeen (MON)
glorious saint/saint brigthness'. Another title of the jewtsündamba khutagts; Tibetan Buddhism’s third highest incarnation after the Dalai and Panchen lamas; and the highest Buddhist dignitary in Mongolia.
 
Bogd khaan = 8-r bogd; 8-r jewtsündamba khutagt; Agwaan luwsan choiji nyima danzan wanchug (MON)
'saint khaan'. The title of the 8th jewtsündamba khutagt from 29th November 1911. Till that time the Manchu emperor bore this title. For details see the term 8-r bogd.
 
Bogd khaant üye (MON)
Name of the period 1911-1921; when the state was led by the religious and political leader; the Bogd Khaan (8th jewtsündamba khutagt)
 
Bogd lam (MON)
an epithet of Tsongkhapa
 
Bogd lamiin chogo / Bogd (Zonkhow) lamiin chogo (MON) 
bla-ma'i cho-ga (TIB)
 
Ceremony in honour of Tsongkhapa; held at the anniversary of Tsongkhapa’s death on the 25th of the first winter month. See also zuliin 25-n; Zonkhowiin düitsen; Zonkhowiin taalal bolson ödör.
 
Bogdiin khüree = Khutagtiin khüree (MON)
Monastic city of the Bogd'; one of the old names of the Mongolian capital city
 
boipor (MON) 
spos-phor (TIB)
 
incense pot; bowl for burning incense
 
boitog (MON)
boots; usually for children
 
Bor örgöö = Khoid örgöö (MON)
Brown Palace' or 'Rear Palace'; name of a yurt palace that was once situated in Züün khüree behind the main assembly hall.
 
bumba = khumkh (MON) 
bum-pa (TIB)
 
Vase holding sacred water; used at ceremonies. Also a part (treasure-vase) of a stupa.
 
bumshi (MON) 
'bum bzhi (TIB)
 
Four hundred thousand'; a kind of fourfold meditative practice for monks. It contains the following four parts: Mörgöl (prostration); Itgel or Megzem toolokh (recitation of the text of going for refuge or the prayer to Tsongkhapa); Mandal örgökh (mandala offering); Naminchlakh or Bazarsadiin tarnii toolokh (confession of sins/downfalls by the recitation of the mantra of Vajrasattva deity).
 
burkhan (MON)
Buddha; buddha; Buddhist deity.
 
Burkhan bagsh (MON)
Buddha master'; a Mongolian name for Buddha Shakyamuni (BC 560-480).
 
Burkhan bagsh mendelsen khiigeed ilt tuulsan Burkhanii khutgiig olson; nirwaan düüriig üzüülsen ikh düitsen ödör (MON) 
mngon-par byang-chub-pa'i dus-chen (TIB)
 
One of the anniversaries or yearly festivals connected to the Buddha; held on the 15th or full moon of the first summer month. It celebrates three events of Buddha’s life (his birth; his enlightenment and his death).
 
Burkhan bagsh tengeriin ornoos buuj irsen ödör = Lkhawaw(iin) düitsen (MON) 
lha-las babs-pa'i dus-chen (TIB)
 
‘descending [of the Buddha] from the gods' realm’; name of a festival which is held on the 22nd of the last autumn month; one of the 'great days of Buddha' (Burkhan bagshiin düitsen). It is the anniversary of the day when Buddha descended from the god realms; where he had spent 90 days teaching and performing the Khailen retreat.
 
Burkhan bagsh(iin) (tersüüdiig nomkhotgon) rid khuwilgaan üzüülsen ikh düitsen ödrüüd = Choinpürel jon aa (MON) 
cho-'phrul chen-po'i dus-chen (TIB)
 
The great festival days of Buddha’s miracle showing'; commemorating Buddha’s defeat of the six masters; the holders of heretical doctrines; by mysterious methods including miracles. These ceremonies are held in the first 15 days of the lunar new year. See also Choinpürel molom yerööl / Ikh yerööl.
 
Burkhan bagshiin chogo = Tüwiin chogo (MON) 
thub-pa'i cho-ga (TIB)
 
Ceremony in honour of the Buddha; held on the great days of Buddha (see also Burkhan bagshiin düitsen ödör).
 
buryad (MON)
Buryat; ethnic group living in Khöwsgöl; Selenge and Khentii aimags of Mongolia and in the Buryat Autonomous territory (near lake Baikal).
 
büreenii shat (MON)
wooden platform used for calling monks to the ceremonies
 
Büüwei baatar = Baatar beil (MON)
see Baatar beil
 
byasalgal (MON)
meditation; contemplation
 
Chagdar khorchin / Chagdor khorchen (MON) 
phyag-rdor ‘khor chen (TIB)
 
Vajrapani with his attendants
 
Chagdün Jandin Seded (MON) 
phyag bdun gtsug tor gdugs dkar mo (TIB)
 
seven-armed Sitatapatra'; an emanation of the goddess with the white umbrella (Seded; Tsagaan shükhert; Düger).
 
Chagsh Gombo (MON) 
phyag bzhi mgon-po; mgon-po phyag bzhi-pa (TIB)
 
the four-armed emanation of Mahakala
 
Chagsh Janraiseg (MON) 
phyag bzhi spyan-ras gzigs (TIB)
 
the four-armed emanation of Avalokiteshvara
 
Chagsh Lkham (MON) 
phyag bzhi lha-mo (TIB)
 
the four-armed emanation of Shridevi
 
Chidon = Nokhoin nüürt (MON) 
khyi-gdong (TIB)
 
'dog-faced'. The dog-headed spirit of Bayanzürkh mountain. Also appeared in some types of Tsam dances in Mongolia.
 
chii-gaa/gan; tugnii mod (MON)
Pillars for flags; put up in pairs in front of a monastery gate.
 
Chin (MON)
Manchu Quing (Ching) dynasty (1644-1911) reigned in China and governed also Mongolia until 1911.
 
chin wan (MON)
noble rank
 
Chingeltei (uul) (MON)
Chingeltei (mountain)'; name of a mountain north of Ulaanbaatar
 
Chogar = Takhiliin büjig (MON) 
mchod-gar (TIB)
 
offering dance'; a kind of religious costumed meditative dance peformed in Kalachakra monastic schools (Dechingalaw or Düinkhor datsan).
 
chogo/ choga (MON) 
cho-ga (TIB)
 
ritual; ceremony; way of performance; collective name for certain kinds of bigger ceremonies.
 
Choibalsan; Kh. (MON)
Khorlogiin Choibalsan was the Communist leader of Mongolia from 1928 until his death in 1952. President of Mongolia between January 24; 1929 - April 27; 1930. Had the military rank of Marshal. The purges took place in Mongolia; following Stalin’s order; under him. They began with political and economic sanctions introduced during 1924-1937 and ended with the total suppression of religion; confiscation of all monastic property and mass executions of the monk body.
 
Choijil / Choijoo = Damjin Choijil / Damjin Choijoo = Erlig nomun khaan / Erleg nomon khaan (MON) 
chos-rgyal (TIB)
 
Dharmaraja ('King of religion'); epithet of Erlig khaan or Yama; the ''Lord of Death''; one of the ten wrathful deities.
 
choijin (MON) 
chos-skyong (TIB)
 
Dharmapala; 'protector of the Teaching'.
 
Choijin lam = Luwsankhaidaw (MON) 
chos-skyong bla-ma (TIB)
 
The younger brother of the 8th jewtsündamba khutagt who was the state oracle and interpreter of the Choijin protectors. Died in 1918.
 
Choijoo = see Choijil (MON)
 
Choijoo danrag (MON) 
chos-rgyal gtang-rag (TIB)
 
Thanksgiving offering in honour of Choijoo; the Lord of Death; consisting of three big sacrificial cakes and other offferings.
 
Choijoo dügjüü (MON) 
chos-rgyal drug-bcu (TIB)
 
sixty to Choijoo'; a kind of sacrificial cake offered to Choijoo; the Lord of Death.
 
Choinkhor düitsen = (Burkhan bagshiin) nomiin khürd ergüülsen düitsen; nomiin khürd ergüülekh (MON) 
chos-'khor dus-chen (TIB)
 
Great day of the turning of the wheel of Dharma' commemorating the day when Buddha first preached the Dharma. It is held on the 4th of the last summer month; one of the four great days of Buddha (Burkhan bagshiin düitsen).
 
Choinpürel jon aa = Burkhan bagshiin (tersüüdiig nomkhotgon) rid khuwilgaan üzüülsen ikh düitsen ödrüüd (MON) 
chos-‘phrul bco-lnga (TIB)
 
‘Fifteen miracles’. Ceremonies held in the first 15 days of the lunar new year; commemorating Buddha’s defeat of the six masters; the holders of heretical doctrines; by mysterious methods including miracles. See also Choinpürel molom yerööl / Ikh yerööl.
 
Choinpürel molom yerööl = Ikh yerööl; see also Oroin yerööl (MON) 
chos-‘phrul smon-lam (TIB)
 
Prayers of 'miracle showing'; name of the ceremonies lasting for 15 days in the new lunar year (first spring month) when sixty different texts are recited. They include the 32 eulogies (magtaal) and the six prayers (Zurgaan yerööl). See also Choinpürel jon aa = Burkhan bagshiin (tersüüdiig nomkhotgon) rid khuwilgaan üzüülsen ikh düitsen ödrüüd.
 
choir (datsan) (MON) 
chos-grwa (grwa-tshang) (TIB)
 
philosophical monastic school
 
Choiyonsün (MON) 
chos dbyings bsrung (TIB)
 
Name of a deity; 'the one protected by Dharmadatu (ultimate sphere; field of reality)'
 
chombon / chowombo (MON) 
mchod-dpon (TIB)
 
chief of offerings'; offering master; a monk in charge of the offerings
 
chuulganii oron = tsogshin (MON) 
tshogs zhing (TIB)
 
Assembly field; field of merit/accumulation'. Assembly tree representing a Buddhist master and the lineage a teaching was transmitted through different deities and tutelary deities.
 
Da khüree = Ikh khüree (MON)
great monastic city'; old name of Ulaanbaatar; the capital city of Mongolia
 
da lam/ daa lam (MON)
great lama'; attendant of the shanzaw. An administrative rank.
 
daamal (lam) (MON)
manager; responsible monk; an administrative rank
 
dagan bayasakh (MON) 
rjes su yi-rang (TIB)
 
rejoicing
 
Daichin khamba (MON)
‘heroic abbot’; a honorary title; daichin being a Mongolian word meaning ‘hero’ and khamba being a Tibetan word (mkhan-po) meaning abbot.
 
Daichin wangiin khüree / Wangiin khüree (MON)
Name of a large monastic city near the present centre of Bulgan aimag; ruined in the purges.
 
Dalai lam / Dalai bagsh (MON)
Dalai Lama; the highest dignitary in Tibetan Buddhism. Spiritual and once political leader. The title meaning 'Ocean of wisdom' (dalai being a Mongolian word for sea; ocean) was given by the Mongolian Altan Khan to Sonam Gyatso in 1578; who became known as the 3rd Dalai Lama (his two earlier incarnations being recognized as the first two).
 
Dalai lamiin san (MON)
‘treasury of the Dalai Lama’; situated in Ikh khüree in a fenced-off area being called Dalai lamiin sangiin khashaa. It was built for the 13th Dalai Lama in 1905 when he stayed in Ikh khüree having fled from the invading British force to Lhasa led by Francis Younghusband.
 
Dalkhaa (MON) 
dgra lha (TIB)
 
deity of war; war god
 
Damdin (also used erronously for Damjan / Damjin) (MON) 
rta-mgrin (TIB)
 
Hayagriva; the horse-headed tutelary deity; wrathful aspect of Buddha Amitabha.
 
Damdin Sandüw / Damdin Sandow (MON) 
rta-mgrin gsang-sgrub (TIB)
 
Secret form of Hevajra; ‘Hayagriva secret sadhana'
 
Damdin Yansan = Yansan yadam (MON) 
rta-mgrin yang-gsang (yi-dam) (TIB)
 
A four-faced and six-armed tutelary deity with wings; and a horse-head in his hair; who is embracing his consort. He was worshipped by Padmasambhava; and is a main tutelary deity in Red Sect temples. Among the three main Gelukpa monasteries of Tibet; he is also the main tutelary deity in Sera and as such is worshipped in monastic schools following the manual book (igchaa) of Sera.
 
damjaa (MON) 
dam-bca' (TIB)
 
vow; promise'; see also the term damjaa barikh
 
damjaa barikh (MON)
taking an 'exam' to obtain a high rank (doctor) in any field of Buddhist studies (philosophy; tantic; medical and astrologic studies)
 
Damjan / Damjin (also written erronously as Damdin) = Damjan Dorlig; Damjin garwanagwuu (MON) 
dam-can (TIB)
 
‘oath-bound-one; vow-holder; oath-bound protector’; see Damjan Dorlig and Damjan garwanagwuu.
 
Damjan / Damjin garwanagwuu (also written erronously as Damdin) = Damjan; Damjan Dorlig (MON) 
dam-can mgar-ba nag-po (TIB)
 
The oath-bound black ironsmith'; important emanation of Damjan Dorlig (Vajrasadhu). The black-coloured smith; protector deity of smiths; also worshipped at medical monastic schools. A blue coloured wrathful deity wearing a big round hat and riding a billy-goat.
 
Damjan Choijil / Damjan Choijil / Damjan Choijoo/ Damjin Choijoo (also written erronously as Damdin Choijil) = Choijil / Choijoo / Erleg nomun khaan (MON) 
dam-can chos-rgyal (TIB)
 
see the term Choijil.
 
Damjan Dorlig / Damjin Dorlig (also written erronously as Damdin dorlig) = Damjan; Damjan garwanagwuu (MON) 
dam-can rdo-rje legs-pa / dam-can rdor-legs (TIB)
 
the oath-bound protector Vajrasadhu
 
damnuurchin = damnuurgachin (MON)
‘Porter who carries the water pot on a pole’; a word used for merchants as they carried their goods with them. Became a name for two merchant districts in Ikh khüree; Baruun damnuurchin and Züün damnuurchin.
 
damnuurgachin = see damnuurchin (MON)
 
Damtsigdorj = see Bar' lam (Damtsigdorj) / Bragri lam (Damtsigdorj)/ Bragiriin gegeen (MON) 
brag-ri dam-tshig rdo-rje (TIB)
 
Danag/ Darnag Shinjishid = Shinjishid = Jigjid (MON) 
dgra-nag gshin-rje-gshed (TIB)
 
‘The sworn enemy of the lord of death or Yama’. Yamantaka.
 
Dandar agramba (MON) 
bstan-dar sngags-rams-pa (TIB)
 
Famous Mongolian monk; living between 1835-1915. Was the abbot (khamba) of Daichin wangiin khüree; living between 1835-1915.
 
Danjuur (MON) 
bstan-'gyur (TIB)
 
Tanjur; 'Translated treatises'. The collection of commentaries on the words of the Buddha (Ganjuur; Kanjur) in 225 volumes.
 
danrag (MON) 
gtang-rag (TIB)
 
thanksgiving offering
 
danshig = see bat orshil (örgökh) (MON) 
brtan-bzhugs (TIB)
 
danshig naadam (MON)
(Sport) festival held during the ceremony of longevity dedicated to the jewtsündamba khutagt or other high dignitary
 
Danzanrawjaa = Noyon khutagt Danzanrawjaa (MON) 
bstan-'dzin rab-rgyas (TIB)
 
As the fifth reincarnation of a Sakya saint; this famous incarnated monk (1803-1856) was the abbot of Khamriin khiid in the present Dornogow’ aimag; the author of Tibetan-Mongolian bilingual poems; plays; founder of numerous monasteries in the Gobi; a monastic theatre; and a museum.
 
Dar' ekh = Dolma / Dulma/ Dulam (MON) 
sgrol-ma (TIB)
 
Saviouress'; Tara; a female bodhisattva. The most famous are the Green and White Tara and the group of the 21 Taras. Dar' ekh is also the name of the text dedicated to her.
 
Dar' ekhiin chiwel (MON) 
sgrol-ma'i 'chi-ba bslu (TIB)
 
Name of a ceremony to Tara. Chiwel (Tib. 'chi-ba bslu) literally means 'deceive death'; save one from death by paying ransom'; ransom the life of a dying person.
 
Dar' Ekhiin mandal shiwaa (MON) 
sgrol-ma'i mandala bzhi-ba (TIB)
 
Name of a ceremony dedicated to Tara; called 'The Four Mandalas of Tara'.
 
dariganga (MON)
Ethnic group living in Sükhbaatar aimag; the south-eastern part of Mongolia
 
darkhan (MON)
Honorable or privileged; saint; protected; thus used in honorary titles. Historically also meant people/subjects exempted from tax. Also has the meaning of blacksmith.
 
darkhan gesgüi (MON)
honorable disciplinary master'. A high monastic rank; higher than ikh gegsüi (main disciplinary master).
 
darkhan lowon (MON)
'honorable master'. A high monastic rank.
 
darkhan unzad (MON)
honorable chanting master'. A high monastic rank; higher than ikh unzad (main chanting master).
 
Darwa/Darba bandid(a) gegeen / Darwa pandita (MON)
Darwa bandida gegeen; a famous incarnated lama was reborn 17 times; of which six times in Mongolia; the first of them born in 1637. The last Darwa bandida Agwaanchoinjirdondüw lived between 1870-1927. His monastery; Rashaantiin khüree; was situated in Sain noyon khan aimag; Mergen günii khoshuu; present Khöwsgöl aimag; Rashaant sum.
 
Dashchiiraw (san) (MON) 
bkra-shis char-'bebs(-kyi bsangs) (TIB)
 
‘incense offering to cause rainfall of auspiciousness'; title of a text.
 
dashnyam (MON) 
bkra-shis nyi-ma (TIB)
 
fortunate sun'; a day/date considered very fortunate in the lunar calendar
 
Dashnyam arawnai (MON) 
bkra-shis nyi-ma'i rab-gnas (TIB)
 
Consecration ceremony held on the ‘fortunate day’.
 
datsan (MON) 
grwa-tshang (TIB)
 
monastic school or temple with priviliged position
 
dawaa (MON)
mountain pass
 
Dawkhar yerööl (MON)
‘Double prayer’; name of a ceremony held on the Great day of Öndör Gegeen (Öndör gegeenii ikh düitsen ödör); on the 14th of the Lunar New Year ceremonies (14th of the first spring month). It commemorates the death of Öndör gegeen.
 
dayaan (MON)
meditation; contemplation; derived from the Sanskrit word dhyana
 
dayaanch (MON)
contemplative monk; the term being derived from Sanskrit dhyana ('meditation').
 
Dechingalaw datsan / Dechingalwa datsan (MON) 
bde-chen bskal-pa (TIB)
 
The period of Great Bliss/Happiness'. The name of the most important temple in the courtyard of the Yellow Palace of the Bogd in Ikh khüree; which is dedicated to the Kalachakra teachings.
 
ded khamba (MON)
vice abbot
 
deel (MON)
traditional Mongolian robe or gown
 
demberel yanlag junai (MON) 
rten-'brel yan-lag bcu-gnyis (TIB)
 
the twelve aspects or links of interdependent origination or causation
 
Demchig / Demchog (MON) 
bde-mchog (TIB)
 
Chakrasamvara; one of the three main yellow sect tantras/tutelary deities
 
Demchig / Demchog lkhan-aa = Lkhan-aa demchog / demchig (MON) 
bde-mchog lha lnga (TIB)
 
the five deities of Chakrasamvara mandala
 
Demchig garaw (MON) 
bde-mchog dkar-po (TIB)
 
a white form of Chakrasamvara
 
denj (MON)
hill; hillock; terrace
 
Dewaajin (MON) 
bde-ba-can (TIB)
 
Sukhavati; Blissful Realm; the pure land of Amitabha Buddha
 
Dilow khutagt Jamsranjaw (MON) 
Tilopa khutugtu lcam-sring skyabs (TIB)
 
The last reincarnation of Dilow khutagt (Tilopa khutugtu) who lived between 1884-1965. After being arrested and accused of spying for the Japanese at the beginning of the purges; he fled to Inner-Mongolia and then to the USA .
 
Diwaasambuu / Dewaasambuu / Dawaasambuu (MON) 
zla-ba bzang-po (TIB)
 
the first king of the legendary kingdom of Shambhala; called Suchandra.
 
dod'ig / dodyog (MON) 
stod-gyogs (TIB)
 
upper garment/cloth'; a cape or mantle-like monks' garment worn only for special tantric ceremonies
 
dogjür (MON) 
bzlog-bsgyur (TIB)
 
exorcism rite that turns away evil spirits and negativity
 
dogshid = khangal / sakhius (MON)
protector fearful spirit; wrathful deity
 
Dolgornaljormaa (MON) 
sgrol-dkar rnal-‘byor–ma (TIB)
 
the White Tara yogini'; name of a goddess
 
Dolma / Dulma /Dulam = see Dar' ekh (MON) 
sgrol-ma (TIB)
 
Doloon nuur (MON)
Seven Lakes'; name of a lake/place in Inner-Mongolia; east of Mongolia
 
doloon tsorj (MON) 
chos-rje bdun (TIB)
 
board of religious affairs in Ikh khüree appointed by the jewtsündamba khutagt that was composed of the seven highest ranking monks: namely the head abbot (Khamba nomon khan); the vice abbot (Ded khamba) and the five Tsorj (all appointed by the jewtsündamba khutagt)
 
dom (MON) 
phar phyin dam bca' (TIB)
 
vow; precept'
 
dom (MON) 
ston-mo (TIB)
 
feast; festival'
 
domiin damjaa (MON) 
phar phyin dam bca' (TIB)
 
name of an exam in philosphical monastic schools; which can be taken after finishing the courses of Pramana and Prajnyaparamita
 
donchid (MON) 
stong mchod (TIB)
 
thousandfold-offering
 
Dondogdulam = Ekh Dagina / Ulsiin Ekh Dagina (MON)
Name of the consort of the Bogd khaan who bore the following titles: Achlalt noyon given in 1890; Erdene tsetsen noyon in 1905 and Ulsiin Ekh dagina (‘the mother dakini of the country’) in 1911.
 
Doodüd (MON) 
mdo sdud-pa (TIB)
 
Title of a text; a short version of Prajnyaparamita
 
doorombo / dooramba (MON) 
rdo-rams-pa (TIB)
 
degree in philosophical studies which can be obtained at Labrang monastery; North-Tibet
 
dorbül nirdad /nirtad (MON)
A kind of sacrifical cake offering.
 
dordow / dorduw / dordüw (MON) 
gtor sgrub (TIB)
 
Ceremonial cake offering
 
dorj lowon (MON) 
rdo-rje slob-dpon (TIB)
 
vajra master'; the highest rank or title of the head of a tantric monastic school
 
Dorjdagzal (toiwonagwa) (MON) 
rdo-rje drag-rtsal (khros-pa nag-po) (TIB)
 
Wrathful Vajra Power'; 'the black wrathful one'; deity: the wrathful form of Padmasambhava worshipped by the Karma Kagyü Sect
 
Dorjnamjim / Dorjnamjom (MON) 
rdo-rje rnam-'joms (TIB)
 
Vajravidharana; 'The Vajra Conqueror'. A practice to this deity is for the removal of contamination and negativity. Also the name of a Mahayana sutra.
 
Dorjpagam / Dorjpagma (MON) 
rdo-rje phag-mo (TIB)
 
Vajravarahi; 'Vajra Sow'. A sambhogakaya manifestation of the female buddha; Samantabhadri.
 
Dorjsembe = see Bazarsad (MON) 
rdo-rje sems-dpa' (TIB)
 
Dorjshüg(den) = Shüg(den) (MON) 
rdo-rje shugs(-ldan) (TIB)
 
Powerful/strong' or 'Vajra strong'; name of a warrior protector deity; whose worship is forbidden by the Dalai Lama. He is still worshipped in several Mongolian monasteries.
 
Dorjzodow / Dorjzodwa (MON) 
rdo-rje gcod-pa (TIB)
 
Vajracchedika; 'Diamond-cutter'; title of a Mahayana Sutra
 
dorom = see balin (MON) 
gtor-ma (TIB)
 
doshil / doshal (MON) 
'dod-zhal (TIB)
 
a distinctive embroidery pattern with a monster or demon head
 
dotood san (MON)
inner treasury'; a part of ikh san
 
dotor Tsam (MON)
inner-Tsam'; religious Tsam dance held inside the temple
 
dörwön Makhranz (MON) 
rgyal chen (sde) bzhi (TIB)
 
Four maharajas'; the direction kings; guardians of the four directions.
 
dörwön zam (MON)
road junction
 
dugan (MON) 
'du-khang (TIB)
 
shrine; temple; assembly hall
 
duganch (MON) 
'du-khang-pa (TIB)
 
shrine keeper; shrine supervisor
 
Dugar / Düger = Tsagaan shükhert = Seded (MON) 
gdugs dkar (TIB)
 
Sitatapatra; the goddess with the white umbrella who protects against obstacles
 
Dulwaa (MON) 
'dul-ba (TIB)
 
Vinaya; monastic 'discipline'; one of the three parts of the Tripitaka.
 
duu tasrakhgüi khural (MON)
non-stop assembly (with continuous chanting)
 
Duwkhan / Töwkhön (MON) 
sgrub-khang (TIB)
 
dwelling for meditation practice; a building/cave or enclosure used for intensive meditation and practice; also the name of a hermitage; founded by Öndör gegeen; situated in Öwörkhangai aimag
 
düd (MON) 
bdud (TIB)
 
Mara. Demon or demonic influence that creates obstacles for practice and enlightenment. Mythologically; Mara was the name of a god who attempted to prevent Buddha from attaining enlightenment at Bodhgaya.
 
Dügjüü (MON) 
drug-bcu (TIB)
 
Sixty'; a special sacrificial cake offering performed to Choijoo. See also Choijoo dügjüü.
 
Düijid nyamba /nyanba / nyam (MON) 
dus-rgyud bsnyen-pa (TIB)
 
Name of a ceremony peformed at the Kalachakra anniversary; on the 15th day of the last month of spring. It commemorates the day when Buddha first gave teachings on the Kalachakra system; ‘the wheel/cycle of time (see Tsagiin khürd or Düinkhor) of Buddhism. This ceremony is held currently in Mongolia only in Gandan and Dashchoilin monasteries.
 
Düinkhor (MON) 
dus-'khor (TIB)
 
Kalachakra; 'Wheel of time'; name of a deity and a tantric system
 
Düinkhor datsan (MON) 
dus-'khor grwa-tshang (TIB)
 
monastic school for studying the Kalachakra tantric system
 
Düinkhoriin jinsreg (MON) 
dus-‘khor-gyi sbyin-bsreg (TIB)
 
Kalachakra fire-offering
 
Düinkhoriin jüdwiin / jüdbiin lam (MON) 
dus-‘khor-gyi rgyud-pa’i bla-ma (TIB)
 
(Someone's) main Kalachakra tantra lama
 
Düinkhoriin mandal (MON) 
dus-'khor-gyi dkyil-'khor (TIB)
 
Kalachakra mandala
 
Düisümchenba (MON) 
dus-gsum mkhyen-pa (TIB)
 
The first karmapa; initiator of the Karma Kagyü sect in Tibet; living between 1110-1193.
 
düitsen / düichen (ödör) (MON) 
dus chen (TIB)
 
great day; festival day'. The special monthly and yearly ceremonies; held monthly on the 8th; 15th and 30th days of the lunar month. The yearly düitsens are the biggest Buddhist festivals.
 
dültsen / dültson (MON) 
rdul-tshon (TIB)
 
coloured powder; coloured stone dust'; usually stands for dültsen jinkhor; coloured sand mandala
 
dültsen jinkhor (MON) 
rdul-tshon dkyil-’khor (TIB)
 
coloured sand/powder mandala
 
Dünshag / Dünshig (MON) 
ltung bshags (TIB)
 
Confessing downfalls'; title of a text for confession of sins or downfalls.
 
Dürteddagwa / Dürtoddagwa (MON) 
dur-khrod bdag-po (TIB)
 
Citipati; Skeleton Lord(s) of the cemetery or burial sites; depicted in pairs.
 
düüreg (MON)
District. The six districts in Ulaanbaatar are: Sükhbaatar district; Bayanzürkh district; Bayangol district; Chingeltei district; Khan uul district and Songino khairkhan district.
 
düwchin / tüwchin = ikh düwchin (MON) 
grub chen (TIB)
 
Mahasiddha; great accomplished one; yogin who has attained supreme siddhi power
 
Düzeichalba / Düdziichilba (MON) 
bdud-rtsi dkyil-ba/’khyil-pa (TIB)
 
Amrita pooler'; name of a wrathful deity
 
Ekh dagina / Ulsiin Ekh Dagina = Dondogdulam (MON)
consort of the Bogd khaan; see Dondogdulam
 
Emch nariin datsan = Manba / Mamba datsan (MON)
'monastic school of the doctors'
 
emegtei lam (MON)
female monk'; nun (getselmaa; gelenmaa) or women practitioner with genen vow. See also the terms ane; khandmaa.
 
Erdene shanzodwa / shanzaw (MON) 
phyag mdzod-pa (TIB)
 
Head of the Ministry of Ecclesiastical Affairs; which operated in the time of Ikh khüree. Chief administrator of ecclesiastical property collected from the subordinated areas.
 
Erdene shanzodwiin yaam / Erdene shanzawiin yaam / Shanzawiin yaam (MON) 
phyag mdzod (TIB)
 
Ministry of Ecclesiastical Affairs; which operated in the time of Ikh khüree
 
Erdene zuu (MON)
The first monastery in Mongolia; founded by Awtai khan in 1586. It partly survived the purges and is situated in present Kharkhorin; Öwörkhangai aimag. There is now an active temple and there is also a museum of religious artifacts. It is included in the UNESCO's list of World Heritage Sites.
 
Eregsümgombo / Rigsümgombo = Gurwan yazguurtiin itgel (MON) 
rigs gsum mgon-po (TIB)
 
Lords of the Three Families; the trinity of bodhisattvas: Avalokiteshvara; Manjushri and Vajrapani.
 
Erlig (nomun) khaan / Erleg nomon khaan = see Damjin Choijil / Damjin Choijoo / Choijil / Choijoo (MON)
 
gaadamba(a) (MON) 
bka'-gdams(-pa) (TIB)
 
Kadam(pa); the lineage or sect initiated in Tibet by the great Indian master Atisha (see Adisha).
 
gachin = khachin / khanchin (MON) 
mkhan chen (TIB)
 
great scholar’; great abbot; a high rank or title. The khachin lam of the jewtsündamba khutugtus was always appointed by the Panchen lama; while his yonzon (spiritual teacher) was appointed by the Dalai lama.
 
Gamgan’ (MON)
Title of a text (the title is of Tibetan origin).
 
Gamin (MON)
Chinese Nationalist army of the Kuo-min-tang that came to Mongolia in 1919; and occupied the Mongolian capital city.
 
Gandan (MON) 
dga'-ldan (TIB)
 
1. Ganden monastery; one of the three main Tibetan Gelukpa monasteries; 2. Gandan monastery; the main monastic complex of Ulaanbaatar; center of Mongolian Buddhism since 1838; once called Baruun khüree; 'western monastic complex' (of the old Ikh khüree) 3. also a general term meaning monastery/Buddhist temple. See also Gandantegchenlin.
 
Gandanlkhawjaa / Gandanlkhawjamaa (MON) 
dga'-ldan lha brgya-ma (TIB)
 
‘Hundred deities of Tushita’; title of a text; Guru yoga of Tsongkhapa.
 
Gandantegchenlin = Gandan (MON) 
dga'-ldan theg-chen gling (TIB)
 
Name of the main monastic complex in Ulaanbaatar (also called as Baruun khüree in the old times) which partly survived the purges and was reopened in 1944. Also the name of its main assembly hall (Tsogchin dugan); built in 1838. Short form is Gandan.
 
Ganapati (MON) 
tshogs bdag (TIB)
 
The king of the obstacling spirits; Ganesha
 
ganjir (MON) 
Tibetan transliteration: gan-ji-ra (TIB)
 
Derived from the Sanskrit word gascira; golden top ornament of a temple.
 
Ganjuur (MON) 
bka'-'gyur (TIB)
 
1. Kanjur. The canon of the words and teachings of Buddha in 108 volumes. 2. Name of a ceremony during which extracts or selected passages are read from every part of the 108 volumes of Ganjuur.
 
Ganjuur ergekh (MON)
Circumambulation of the Ganjuur'. A ceremonial event when volumes of holy texts are circulated around the town or an area or a whole aimag; on a vehicle or by people on foot.
 
ganzai (MON) 
bskang-rdzas (TIB)
 
‘Articles of sacrificial offering; fulfillment offerings’; a type of thangka composition.
 
garamba (MON) 
bka'-rams-pa (TIB)
 
one of the highest levels of philosophical degree
 
Garid = Khan Garid (MON) 
khyung (TIB)
 
Garuda; the mythical bird deity
 
garjid / gajüd(ba/waa) (MON) 
bka’-(b)rgyud(-pa) (TIB)
 
the transmission of the teachings'; the Kagyü sect of Lamaism; one of the four Tibetan sects. It was transmitted by Tilopa; Naropa; Marpa; Milarepa and Gampopa.
 
Garma bagsh Choiji lam (MON) 
chos-kyi bla-ma (TIB)
 
A reincarnation of Düisümchenba; who introduced Karma Kagyü teachings to Mongolia in the 13th century (1204-1283). He was appointed the State Tutor by Mönkh khaan and was also given the title of Garma bagsh; ‘Karma master’. He established several monasteries in Tibet and Mongolia.
 
garma garjid / gajüd(ba/waa) (MON) 
kar-ma bka'-(b)rgyud (TIB)
 
Karma Kagyü. One of the subsects of Kagyü Sect founded by Düisümchenba. It was introduced to Mongolia in the 13th century by Garma bagsh; Choiji lama.
 
Garmawa Ürjinperenleidorj (MON) 
karma-pa u-rgyan phrin-las rdo-rje (TIB)
 
The present; 17th incarnation of Karmapas; born in 1985 and living in Dharamsala.
 
gawj (MON) 
dka'-bcu (TIB)
 
Ten hardships'; academic degree in philosophical studies.
 
gawjiin damjaa (MON) 
dka'-bcu'i dam-bca' (TIB)
 
Exam to obtain the academic degree of ten hardships (gawj) in philosophical studies.
 
Gawsüm / Gawsümba (MON) 
skabs gsum (TIB)
 
‘the three times’; the initial words of an eulogy of Buddha written by Tsongkhapa
 
gazriin büjig = sagar (MON) 
sa-gar (TIB)
 
Earth-dance'; a kind of religious dance in honour of the local spirits
 
gegeen (MON)
glorious; splendid'; a great master; a title used in addressing some incarnate monks
 
gelen (MON) 
dge-slong (TIB)
 
bhikshu; fully ordained monk with 253 precepts
 
gelenmaa (MON) 
dge-slong-ma (TIB)
 
bhikshuni; fully ordained nun with 386 precepts
 
gelüg(ba/waa) (MON) 
dge-lugs(-pa) (TIB)
 
Geluk(pa); Yellow sect of Tibetan Buddhism founded by Tsongkhapa (1357-1419). This sect became widespread and dominant in Mongolia in the 17th century.
 
Genden P. (MON)
Prime minister of Mongolia between 1932-37; born in 1895. He was executed in Moscow by the KGB in 1937 for refusing Stalin’s orders to carry out the purges.
 
genen (MON) 
dge-bsnyen (TIB)
 
upasaka; a Buddhist layman with 5 precepts
 
genenmaa (MON) 
dge-bsnyen-ma (TIB)
 
upasika; a Buddhist lay woman with 5 precepts
 
ger (MON)
Yurt; the traditional Mongolian dwelling; a round-shaped tent made of wooden frame and poles and felt covering.
 
ger tugdum = tugdum / tügdem (MON) 
thugs-dam (TIB)
 
Yurt-palace; a palace housed in a yurt.
 
gergen (MON) 
dge-rgan (TIB)
 
old master'; title in an assembly.
 
Geser / Gesar / Geser mergen khan = Guan di / Guan yin (MON) 
ge-sar (TIB)
 
1. Gesar; King of Ling (1038-1124); epic hero in Tibetan and Mongolian folk literature. Also title of the epos (epic poem) on him. 2. a Taoist God of War and a Chinese Buddhist protector deity. See Guan di. 3. In Mongolia the two figures are fused.
 
gesgüi / gebküi (MON) 
dge-bskyos (TIB)
 
disciplinary master or proctor. Rank in Buddhist monasteries.
 
getsel (MON) 
dge-tshul (TIB)
 
shramanera; novice monk; male novice; with 10 precepts
 
getselmaa (MON) 
dge-tshul-ma (TIB)
 
shramanerika; female novice; with 10 precepts
 
gewsh (MON) 
dge-bshes (TIB)
 
virtuous friend’; high academic degree in philosophical studies
 
geyeg (MON) 
dge-gyog (TIB)
 
assistant(s) of the disciplinary master
 
gol süm (MON)
main temple; central temple or assembly hall
 
golch (MON)
chanter; usually a group of monks with good voices who assist the unzads
 
goliin choijin = see albanii choijin (MON)
 
Goman datsan (MON) 
sgo-mang grwa-tshang (TIB)
 
Gomang; one of the philosophical monastic schools in Drepung monastery; one of the three main Tibetan Gelukpa monasteries.
 
Goman igchaa = Günchin igchaa (MON) 
sgo-mang yig-cha (TIB)
 
monastic handbook or manual; written by a Tibetan polymath; Günchin jam'yaan shadaw
 
Gombo = Makhgal; Ikh khar (MON) 
mgon-po (gur-gyi mgon-po) (TIB)
 
Mahakala; 'protector'; one of the ten wrathful protector deities
 
Gombo gür (MON) 
mgon-po gur (TIB)
 
An emanation of Mahakala; worshipped by the Sakyapas
 
Gombojaw; S. (MON) 
mgon-po skyabs (TIB)
 
Famous abbot between 1960-1980 of Gandan monastery with gawj degree also known as öwgön khamba (’old abbot’).
 
gomboo lam (MON)
“Speaker lama” who transmits the words of an oracle whose body is occupied by a deity.
 
Gonchoi lkhaa süm / Gonchoo lkhaa süm / Gonchoi lkham süm (MON) 
mgon chos lham gsum (TIB)
 
The summmary name for three of the ten protectors: Gombo (Mahakala); Choijoo (Yama) and Lkham (Shridevi).
 
Gongor = Tsagaan Makhgal (MON) 
mgon dkar (TIB)
 
Sitamahakala; the White Mahakala; one of the ten wrathful protector deities.
 
gonkhon / gonkhon süm (MON) 
mgon-khang (TIB)
 
protector's temple'; temple or chapel for the worship of the fierce protector deities; usually attached to the main temple on the north; where you can enter from the main hall or a separate temple for their worship.
 
goroo (MON) 
skor (TIB)
 
‘Circumambulation; circumambulate’; also the road or path around a monastery/ temple for circumambulation.
 
Gowiin lkhaa (MON) 
go-ba'i lha (TIB)
 
patron or guardian deity
 
Gowiin lkhan-aa (MON) 
'go-ba'i lha lnga (TIB)
 
the group of the five patron deities
 
Guan di / Guan yu = see also Geser (MON)
a Taoist God of War; also respected by Chinese Buddhists as a Dharma protector. He was a historical person named Zhang (162-220 CE); who changed his name into Guan (Guan di being the honorific name of Guan yu) and became a renowned general in the Three Kingdoms Period. He was accepted by a Ming Dynasty Emperor as the God of War and Protector of China. Guan di is portrayed as a tall giant with a long beard; wearing full armour. When the Manchu dynasty was established; the spirit of Guan di was invoked to lend his spiritual power to help the new dynasty defeat all their enemies and to expand their territory. In Mongolia several monasteries were founded to worship him with the name Geser süm. See also Geser / Gesar; as the two figures became fused in Mongolia.
 
Gurudeva rinpoche (MON)
A highly esteemed monk of Inner-Mongolian origin who contributed greatly to the revival; restoration and reopening of temples in Mongolia. Currently he is in conflict with the Dalai Lama over the worship of a deity; Shügden; banned by the Dalai Lama.
 
gurwan aimag saw (MON) 
sde snod gsum (TIB)
 
Tripitaka; the Buddhist Canon; consisting of three parts; Vinaya Pitaka; Sutra Pitaka; and Abhidharma Pitaka.
 
Gurwan Gürem = Gürem namsum (MON) 
sku-rim rnam gsum (TIB)
 
Three kinds of protective rites'; title of a text; or; most probably; collective name for three texts.
 
Gurwan yazguuriin itgel = Rigsümgombo / Eregsümgombo = Tsedewgombo (MON) 
rigs gsum mgon-po (TIB)
 
Lords of the Three Families; the trinity of bodhisattvas: Avalokiteshvara; Manjushri and Vajrapani.
 
Gurwiin khural (MON)
threefold ceremony’; reciting of three texts; also name of a temple in Züün khüree
 
Güjir khamba/khambo / Güdjir khamba (MON) 
sku bcar mkhan po (TIB)
 
One of the titles given to the State oracle; Choijin lam Luwsankhaidaw. Literally means 'personal attendant monk of a great man; servant retinue; he who sits in company of the grand lama'.
 
Gümbüm (MON) 
sku-'bum (TIB)
 
Name of a famous Yellow Sect monastery in North-Tibet (Amdo); east of Lake Kukunor.
 
gün (MON)
noble rank
 
Gün-aa chogo (MON) 
sku lnga cho-ga (TIB)
 
'ceremony of the five kings or buddhas’ (see tawan khan).
 
Günchin igchaa = see Goman igchaa (MON) 
kun-mkhyen yig-cha (TIB)
 
Günchin Jamiyaan shadaw (MON) 
'jam-dbyangs bzhad-pa (TIB)
 
Tibetan polymath living between 1648-1721; composer of a philosophical handbook; used originally in Gomang monastic school of Drepung monastery
 
gündaa (MON) 
sku-'dra (TIB)
 
statue; image
 
Gündsambo (MON) 
kun-tu bzang-po (TIB)
 
Samantabhadra; 'good to all and everywhere and at all times'; the adi-buddha (primordial buddha) of the Nyingma Sect.
 
Günreg (Nambarnanzad) (MON) 
kun-rig(s) (rnam-par snang-mdzad) (TIB)
 
the all-knowing/omniscient (and completely illuminating)'; Sarvavid Vairochana; a form of Vairochana Buddha. Günreg is also the name of a ceremony performed for the deceased.
 
Günreg = see Günreg (Nambarnanzad) (MON) 
kun-rig(s) (TIB)
 
Gürdagwa (MON) 
gu-ru drag-po (TIB)
 
Wrathful guru'; name of a protector depicted with a vajra and a scorpion.
 
gürem (MON) 
sku-rim (TIB)
 
Healing ceremony; religious service; a protective prayer-ritual for the sake of long life; prosperity etc.
 
Gürem datsan / Gürmiin datsan / Gürmiin dugan (MON) 
sku-rim grwa-tshang (TIB)
 
Temple for healing ceremonies.
 
Gürem namsum = see Gurwan gürem (MON) 
sku-rim rnam gsum (TIB)
 
Gürgül (lkham) (MON) 
rig byed-ma / ku-ru kul-li/le (TIB)
 
Kurukulle goddess; a red female deity; a manifestation of Tara.
 
Gürtembe (MON) 
sku rten-pa (TIB)
 
man possessed of deity'; A term used for oracles; whose bodies during invocations are occupied by different protectors and who communicate their pronouncements. (On the State oracle of Mongolia see the term Choijin lam.) The Tibetan term also means 'body support; body representation; holder or receptacle of the person himself; image of deity'.
 
güshig datsan (MON) 
sku-gshegs grwa-tshang (TIB)
 
güür (MON)
bridge
 
igchaa / igcha (MON) 
yig-cha (TIB)
 
Handbook for philosophy; written by different eminent Tibetan scholars.
 
ikh (MON)
big; main; great
 
Ikh arawnai = Dashnyam arawnai (MON) 
rab gnas (TIB)
 
Great consecration'; name of a consecration ceremony held in Gandan on a fortunate day (3rd of the first autumn month).
 
Ikh bod' möriin zereg = Bod' möriin zereg/ Lamrim (MON) 
lam-rim chen-mo (TIB)
 
The detailed gradual path'; longer or more detailed version of Tsongkhapa's main work
 
ikh düwchin = see düwchin / tüwchin (MON) 
grub chen (TIB)
 
ikh jas (MON)
The main financial unit of a temple or monastery.
 
Ikh khüree = Da khüree (MON) 
hu-re chen-mo (TIB)
 
Great monastic city'; one of the names of the old Mongolian capital; old name of Ulaanbaatar.
 
Ikh Manal (MON) 
sman-bla chen-mo (TIB)
 
Ceremony in honour of the Medicine Buddha; usually held on the 8th day of the lunar month in Mongolian temples.
 
ikh san (MON)
Great Treasury'; the main treasury of the jewtsündamba khutagt. It was of two parts: the dotood san (inner) and the gadaad san (outer) san.
 
ikh shaw' (MON)
‘Great shaw’'; areas and people who were subordinated directly to the jewtsündamba khutagt himself and his ecclesiastical estate.
 
ikh yan(gaar) (MON) 
dbyangs chen (TIB)
 
(With) great melody; tune'; characteristic of certain important ceremonies when the texts are recited in a more melodious way than usual.
 
Ikh Yansan (MON)
Great Yansan'; name of an important ceremony in honour of Yansan yadam.
 
Ikh yerööl = Choinpürel molom yerööl; see also Oroin yerööl (MON) 
smon-lam chen-mo (TIB)
 
Great prayers'; name of the ceremonies held on the first 15 days of the lunar New Year (first spring month) with sixty different texts; like the 32 eulogies (magtaal) and the six prayers (Zurgaan yerööl) recited. See also choinpürel jon-aa / Burkhan bagshiin (tersüüdiig nomkhotgon) rid khuwilgaan üzüülsen ikh düitsen ödrüüd.
 
ilt nom (MON) 
mngon-pa (TIB)
 
Abhidharma; metaphysics; part of Tripitaka
 
Itgel = Jawduu / Jawdoo (MON) 
skyabs-'gro (TIB)
 
taking refuge; going to refuge'; name of a main Buddhist prayer.
 
Jadar = Jidar / Jiddar (MON) 
kye('i) rdo-rje / kye-rdor (TIB)
 
Hevajra; main tutelary deity worshipped mainly by the Sakyapas.
 
Jadariin khamba Agwaankhaidaw = see Agwaankhaidaw; Khamba nomun khan Agwaankhaidaw (MON)
 
Jado rinpoche (MON)
The abbot of His Holiness the Dalai Lama's Namjira (Namgyal) datsan (2006). He is already retired.
 
Jagarmolom (MON) 
rgya-gar smon-lam (TIB)
 
A Mongolian monk who studied and practiced in India and Tibet in the 1800's. He founded the first Zod assembly in Ikh khüree; after returning from Tibet and India where he went on foot; and spent twenty years. He meditated a great deal and is said to have achieved siddhi power. The tantric lineage introduced by him to Mongolia is called Jagarmolomiin jüd or Lawran jüd.
 
Jagarmolomiin jüd = Lawran jüd (MON) 
rgya-gar smon-lam-kyi rgyud (TIB)
 
One of the three main tantric lineages (jüd) in Mongolia. It was introduced to Mongolia by Jagamolom who brought it from the Zod practicers of Lawran monastery in Tibet.
 
Jagon Jamsran = Jamsran; Ulaan sakhius (MON) 
lcam-sring (TIB)
 
Begtse; the 'savior and protector' (?). Epithet of Begtse; the Red Protector.
 
jakhar (MON) 
lcags-mkhar (TIB)
 
Metal palace' of Choijoo; the Lord of Death (Yama). It is prepared and ritually burnt during the Tsam dances.
 
jalba / jalwaa (MON) 
rgyal-po (TIB)
 
king; ruler
 
Jalba senge aro / Jalba sengiin ar(o) = Senge aro / Sengiin aro / Senggera / Senggiin araw (MON) 
rgyal-ba seng-ge'i nga-ro (TIB)
 
victorious lion's roar'; name of a buddha
 
Jalsrai gegeen = see Lkhokh Jalsrai gegeen / Lkhakh Jalsrai Galsan Tüwden Jigjid gegeen (MON)
 
Jaltsaw je (MON) 
rgyal-tshab rje (TIB)
 
One of the two main disciples of Tsongkhapa; living between 1364-1432.
 
Jalwajamts / Jalwaajamts (MON) 
rgyal-ba rgya-mtsho (TIB)
 
Ocean of the Victorious ones'; a form of Avalokiteshvara.
 
Jam’yaanchenzeebambuu (MON) 
`jam-dbyangs mkhyen-brtse dbang-po (TIB)
 
1820-1892; one of the most eminent Tibetan masters of the 19th century. His practice was introduced to Mongolia by Jagarmolom. Pronounced in Tibetan as Jamyang Khyentse Wangpo.
 
Jam’yaansün (MON) 
'jam-dbyangs bsrung (TIB)
 
'protected by Manjugosha'. Name of a tutelary deity.
 
Jambaa = Maidar (MON) 
byams-pa (TIB)
 
The Loving One.' Maitreya; the bodhisattva residing presently in the Tushita heaven before coming to this world as the next Buddha.
 
Jambiin chogo (MON) 
byams-pa'i cho-ga (TIB)
 
ceremony in honour of Maitreya (Maidar; Jambaa); the future Buddha. See also Maidar ergekh.
 
Jamchoi derna (MON) 
byams chos sde lnga (TIB)
 
Five Treatises of Maitreya'; read during the ceremony dedicated to the future Buddha; Maitreya (see Maidar ergekh; Jambiin chogo). These Maitreya teachings were transmitted by Asanga (thogs-med).
 
Jamsran = Ulaan sakhius = Begtse (MON) 
lcam-sring (TIB)
 
sisters'; 'brother and sister'. Another name of Begtse or the Red Protector; one of the 10 wrathful deities; the chief protector of Mongolia.
 
Jamsrangiin danrag (MON) 
lcam-sring-gi gtang-rag (TIB)
 
thanksgiving offering to Begtse; the Red Protector
 
jandag (MON) 
sbyin-bdag (TIB)
 
donor; sponsor; patron; alms-giver
 
Janjaa khutagt (MON) 
lcang-skya (TIB)
 
Title of a Tibetan Buddhist abbot (Changkya Rinpoche); an incarnated lama who resided in Beijing. The first Janjaa khutagt was Agwaanchoidan (Tib. lcang-skya ngag-dbang chos-ldan; Ngawang Chöden); living between 1642-1714. The second was Rolbiidorj (Tib. rol-pa'i rdo-rje ye-shes bstan-pa'i sgron-me; Rölpa Dorje) living between 1717-1786.
 
janjin (MON)
jiangjun in Chinese; vice general; a military rank
 
Janraiseg = Migjid Janraiseg = Khonsüm / Khonshim bodisad (MON) 
spyan-ras-gzigs (TIB)
 
Avalokiteshvara; the bodhisattva of Compassion; who 'sees all directions'.
 
Janraisigiin magtaal (MON) 
spyan-ras-gzigs-kyi bstod-pa (TIB)
 
‘eulogy of Avalokiteshvara’
 
jao / jio (MON)
a kind of financial unit like jas; but smaller than that
 
Jarankhashar / Jarun khashor (MON) 
bya-rung kha-shor (TIB)
 
Boudhnath Stupa; a special type of stupas with painted eyes in its middle part; designed after the Boudhnath stupa of Nepal in Kathmandu valley
 
jas (MON) 
spyi-gsog (TIB)
 
financial; administrational unit; public accumulation / reserves that belonged to the separate temples
 
jasaa (MON)
A monk or a group of two or four monks who perform the reading of texts requested by individuals. Also the readings performed by them. See also nom unshuulakh /nom ailtgakh.
 
Jasaa ikh Ganjuur (MON)
Name of a special Ganjuur ceremony entitled 'the great Jasaa Ganjuur'; presently held only in Gandan monastery.
 
Jasaa Jambiin choga (MON) 
byams-pa'i cho-ga (TIB)
 
Name of a Jambiin choga ceremony in honour of Maitreya; the future Buddha; presently held only in Gandan monastery.
 
Jasaa khural (MON)
Any ritual when the texts requested by individuals are recited. See also nom unshuulakh / nom ailtgakh.
 
jasaa lam (MON)
The lama who performs the reading of texts requested by individuals. It can be a single lama or a group of two or four lamas. See also nom unshuulakh / nom ailtgakh.
 
Jasaanii dugan (MON)
The separate temple or shrine in a monastery where texts requested by individuals are read to them.
 
jawdan (MON) 
'jab-gdan (TIB)
 
Low bench for monks in the temples; originally a soft rug made of wool; now jawdan means the bench itself; usually painted red and with a rug on it.
 
jawdar (MON) 
rgyab-dar (TIB)
 
Silk of the back'; long silk ribbon hanging down from a robe or ritual crown.
 
Jawduu / Jawdoo = see Itgel (MON) 
skyabs-'gro (TIB)
 
Jawshi (MON) 
skyabs bzhi (skyabs-'gro bzhi skor) (TIB)
 
The fourfold taking refuge' originally to the master; the Buddha; the Teaching and the Community. Also the name of a kind of protective healing ritual (gürem) text dedicated to Choijoo.
 
jawtüi (MON) 
byabs-khrus (TIB)
 
purifying liturgy
 
jawtüi lam (MON) 
byabs-khrus-kyi bla-ma (TIB)
 
The monk who performs purifying liturgies. The jewtsündamba khutagt's jawtüi lamas were sent from Tibet. The most famous of them were the jawtüi lamas of the 8th bogd; Baldanchoimbel and Luwsankhaimchog in order. Both became yonzon khamba; and bore also the khamba nomon khan title.
 
Je / Ji yawsras süm / Je yawsrai süm (MON) 
rje yab sras gsum (TIB)
 
Tsongkhapa (1357-1419) and his two disciples Khaidüw Je and Jaltsaw Je.
 
jenan / jonan (MON) 
rjes gnang (TIB)
 
Authorization; empowerment; permission blessing. Similar to empowerment called wan. In Mongolian translation it is 'daguulan soyorkhol'.
 
jewtsün (MON) 
rje-btsun (TIB)
 
Saint; venerable; sage'. A honorific term or title of revered teachers and great monks.
 
jewtsün Darnad = Jonon Darnad (MON) 
jo nang ta ra na tha (TIB)
 
Taranatha; a famous writer and historian; living between 1575-1634; one of the last great representatives of the Tibetan Jo-nang-pa sect; reborn in Mongolia as Öndör gegeen.
 
jewtsündamba khutagt = bogd = bogd gegeen (MON) 
rje-btsun dam-pa (TIB)
 
Saint lord'; another title of the bogds or bogd gegeens; Tibetan Buddhism’s third highest incarnation after the Dalai and Panchen lamas; and the highest Buddhist dignitary in Mongolia; the religious leader of Mongolian Buddhism.
 
Jidar / Jiddar = see Jadar (MON) 
kye('i) rdo-rje (TIB)
 
Jigdor jüden-aa / Jigdor jüden-ee = Jüden-aa / Jüden-ee (MON) 
kye-rdor rgyud sde lnga (TIB)
 
The five deities of Hevajra mandala.
 
Jigjid (see also Danag Shinjishid / Darnag Shinjishid / Shinjishid) (MON) 
'jigs-byed (TIB)
 
Bhairava; the 'Terrifying'; epithet of Yamantaka; one of the three main yellow sect tantras/deities; one of the ten wrathful protector deities.
 
Jigjid danjüg / dagjüg (MON) 
jigs-byed bdag-'jug (TIB)
 
Self-empowerment/initiation of Jigjid'; meditational practice on Bhairava.
 
Jigjidbawuuchigwaa (MON) 
‘jigs-byed dpa’-bo gcig-pa (TIB)
 
the single form of Jigjid (without consort)
 
jiliin dorom = see tsedor (MON)
 
jiliin düitsen ödör (MON)
annual great day; annual festival
 
jinkhor (MON) 
dkyil-'khor (TIB)
 
Mandala. A symbolic representation of a deity's abode with its surrounding environment. A mandala offering is symbolically the offering of the entire universe.
 
jinsreg (MON) 
sbyin-sgreg (TIB)
 
Fire-offering; the ritual burning of different types of food and other precious offerings.
 
joch / jodoch = zoch / zodoch (MON)
A monk (either a man or a woman) practicing the tantric ritual of cutting the ego-clinging called zod in Mongolian.
 
jodkhan (MON) 
mchod-khang (TIB)
 
shine room; shrine; chapel
 
jodwon (MON) 
cod-pan (TIB)
 
crown; head-ornament
 
Jonon Darnad = jewtsün Darnad (MON) 
jo-nang-pa kun snying (TIB)
 
Taranatha; a famous writer and historian; living between 1575-1634; one of the last great representatives of the Tibetan Jo-nang-pa sect; reborn in Mongolia as Öndör gegeen.
 
jorwon / jorwan = zindaanii akhlagch (MON) 
skyor-dpon (TIB)
 
Leader of a monastic class ('rehearsal teacher').
 
jüd (MON) 
rgyud (TIB)
 
tantra; lineage; the tantric or Vajrayana teachings
 
Jüd datsan (MON) 
rgyud grwa-tshang (TIB)
 
Tantric monastic school
 
Jüden-aa / Jüden-ee = Jigdor jüden-aa / Jigdor jüden-ee (MON) 
rgyud sde lnga (TIB)
 
The five deities of [Hevajra] mandala.
 
jüdwiin / jüdbiin lam (MON) 
rgyud-pa'i bla-ma (TIB)
 
tantra lama; the monk who transmitted/transmits a tantric tradition
 
Jügder (MON)
Artist/painter of the Bogd khaan; who painted the famous picture of Ikh khüree in 1913
 
jügder = banzai (MON) 
gtsug-tor (TIB)
 
Ushnisha; prominence above the crown of the head. See also banzai.
 
Jügder namjil / Jügdor namjil = see Biz'yaa (MON) 
gtsug-tor rnam-rgyal (TIB)
 
Jüme (MON) 
rgyud-smad (TIB)
 
Gyu Me; 'Lower tantric school'; one of the monastic schools of Ganden monastery (one of the three most famous Tibetan Gelukpa monasteries).
 
khaan (MON)
king; emperor
 
khachin / khanchin = see gachin (MON) 
mkhan chen (TIB)
 
khadag (MON) 
kha-btags (TIB)
 
Ceremonial silken scarf; mainly blue coloured in Mongolia (while white in Tibet); but exists in five colours for different purposes with different symbolic associations
 
Khaidüw je (MON) 
mkhas-grub rje (TIB)
 
One of the main disciples of Tsongkhapa; living between 1385-1438
 
Khailen = Yar khailen (MON) 
khas-len (TIB)
 
Oath-taking'; the annual summer retreat period of monks; in which gelen and getsel monks take part; and which lasts for 45 days from the 15th of the last summer month. Held only in monasteries with at least four gelens. During this period they confirm their vows; confess their possible mistakes and amend their negative actions. The practice originates from Buddha; who practiced Khailen in the Realm of the 33 Gods. It also has roots in the old tradition of the confinement or retreat of monks in India for the wet summer months; the original cause for which was to spend the rainy period in a retreat with the additional aim of avoiding any accidental killing of insects. Originally; it lasted for three months.
 
khais (MON)
fence
 
Khajid (MON) 
mkha'-spyod; mkha'-la spyod-pa (TIB)
 
'sky traveler'; dakini. Sometimes stands for Narkhajid (see there). Also means celestial pure lands; the realm Khechara; the Buddhafield of Vajra Varahi.
 
Khajidiin chogo (MON) 
mkha'-spyod-kyi cho-ga (TIB)
 
The ceremony of the dakinis'; usually held on the 10th and on the 25th of the lunar month.
 
Khajidiin jankhar dültsen (MON) 
mkha’-spyod-kyi dkyil-‘khor rdul-tshon (TIB)
 
Coloured sand-mandala of Narkhajid dakini.
 
khalkh (MON)
the main ethnic group of Mongolia
 
khamba (MON) 
mkhan-po (TIB)
 
abbot; head of a monastery
 
khamba nomon khan / khamba nomun khan (MON)
Head abbot of Ikh khüree. The first monk holding this rank was nominated by Öndör gegeen Zanabazar. There were 21 khamba nomon khans up to 1937.
 
Khamba nomon khan Agwaan (Luwsan) khaidaw = see Agwaankhaidaw; Jadariin khamba Agwaankhaidaw (MON)
 
Khan Garid = see Garid (MON)
 
Khand (MON) 
mkha'-'gro (TIB)
 
sky-goer/ dancer; often for khandmaa (mkha'-'gro-ma; feminine sky-goer; dakini
 
Khand chogo = Khajidiin chogo (MON) 
mkha'-'gro'i cho-ga (TIB)
 
The ceremony of the dakinis'; usually held on the 10th and on the 25th of the lunar month.
 
Khand dina (MON) 
mkha'-'gro sde-lnga (TIB)
 
The five classes of dakinis or the five dakini aspects: Vajra dakini; Ratna dakini; Padma dakini; Karma dakini and Buddha dakini. These are also called Khand ringaa (Tib. mkha'-'gro rigs lnga; 'five dakini families').
 
Khand ringaa = see Khand dina (MON) 
mkha'-'gro rigs lnga (TIB)
 
Khand tseejüü/ tseijüü (MON) 
mkha'-gro tshes bcu (TIB)
 
The tenth (day) of the dakinis'; celebration of the dakinis held in Red Sect temples on the 10th or 25th of the lunar month.
 
khandmaa (MON) 
mkha'-'gro-ma (TIB)
 
dakini; feminine sky-goer'. Also used for female practitioners (not ordained nuns) with long hair.
 
khangal = Sakhius / dogshid (MON)
Wrathful deity; protector spirit. In Mongolian Buddhism the group of the ten wrathful deities protecting the Buddhist Teaching is specially worshipped. Also the name of the ceremony performed in honour of them. See also Arwan khangal.
 
Khansh neej ödör (MON)
The day of commemorating the dead in Mongolia. People visit the cemeteries and place food offering on the graves; ceremonies are also performed by monks.
 
khantsan (MON) 
khang tsan (TIB)
 
smaller regional section in a monastery
 
Khar tokhoin am (MON)
Name of the Tuul River valley at Gachuurt on the north-east of Ulaanbaatar
 
kharchuud (MON)
laypeople
 
khashaa (MON)
fenced-off yard; fence
 
Khashin khaan (MON) 
hwa-shang rgyal-po (TIB)
 
Figure of a donor and protector of the Teaching who appears in the Tsam religious dance. He represents the Manchu emperor; Kang-xi (17th century); who supported the dissemination of the Yellow Sect tradition of Tibetan Buddhism in Mongolia.
 
khelmegdüülelt(iin üye) = uls töriin khelmegdüülelt (MON)
(the era of) political persecution (from the 1920's to around 1940); resulting in the arrest and execution of around 17;000 monks and thousands of other ‘counter-revolutionaries’; that is; intellectuals such as politicians; writers; thinkers; scientists and teachers.
 
Khengeregiin süm (MON)
'shrine housing the drum'
 
khia (MON) 
sku-srung (TIB)
 
guard; escort or adjutant
 
khiid (MON)
monastery; originally built in a remote and isolated area
 
Khiimoriin san / Lündai san (MON) 
rlung-rta'i bsangs (TIB)
 
‘incense offering for spiritual strength’; title of a famous incense offering text (san) written by Öndör gegeen. It is also known as Madjün jinlaw (Tib. rmad-byung byin-rlabs); after the initial words of the text.
 
Khoid örgöö = Bor örgöö (MON)
'Rear palace' or 'Brown Palace'. Name of a yurt palace that was once situated in Züün khüree behind the main assembly hall.
 
khonkh (MON)
bell; a ritual implement
 
Khonkhnii süm (MON)
'shrine housing the bell'
 
Khonsüm / Khonshim bodisad = see Janraiseg (MON)
 
khoroo (MON)
territorial unit; living quarter; townhouse section; usually translated as district or microdistrict
 
khoroolol = raion (MON)
District; but different from düüreg (which is also usually translated as district; but are larger areas). Khoroolols mark the areas of Soviet-type housing estates; and are referred to by numbers. Equivalent of the Russian-origin term raion; which is somewhat out of use nowadays.
 
khoshuu / khushuu (MON)
territorial unit; division of a county
 
khökh malgaitan = khuushaan (MON)
with blue hat'; Chinese Buddhist monk; he-shang in Chinese
 
khöl (MON)
foot; foot of a mountain
 
khöndii (MON)
basin or valley of a mountain
 
khumkh = see bumba (MON)
 
khural (MON)
1. assembly; congregation 2. gathering; ceremony
 
khurliin süm (MON)
place of the assembly; temple for holding ceremonies
 
khutagt (MON)
saint; majesty; dignified'; a class of high Buddhist incarnate priests in Mongolia
 
Khutagtiin khüree = see Bogdiin khüree (MON)
 
Khuuchid Khambiin khiid (MON)
Name of a monastery in Inner-Mongolia; Shiliin gol area; Khuuchid banner.
 
Khuuchid khoshuu (MON)
One of the banners of Shiliin gol area in Inner Mongolia
 
khuuchin khural / khuuchin nomiin khural (MON)
'The old ceremonies'. Name of the three day Sakhius ceremony to the wrathful deities held before the Lunar New Year (last winter month 27-29th).
 
khuuchin yan (MON) 
dbyangs rnying (TIB)
 
old melody (of chanting)
 
khuushaan = khökh malgaitan (MON)
he-shang in Chinese; Chinese Buddhist monk
 
khuushuur (MON)
One of the traditional Mongolian dishes; a fried pancake filled with mutton.
 
khuwilgaan (MON) 
sprul-sku (TIB)
 
emanation'; reincarnation; incarnate lama
 
khüree (MON)
monastic city; arranged around a monastic complex (khüree also means circle; enclosure)
 
khüree deg (MON)
A kind of monastic city arrangement; 'arrengment in circle'; i.e. the dwellings and temples being arranged in a circle or U-shape facing south around the main assembly hall of a monastic complex.
 
khüree tsam (MON)
A special Mongolian type of the masked ritual dance; Tsam. It got its name after the Mongolian capital of the time; Bogdiin khüree or khüree; or; according to some; from the fact that the dancers danced in a circle (khüree in Mongolian means circle or enclosure; and also monastery).
 
Khüükhen khutagt (MON)
‘The young lady khutagt’; an incarnated monk; who was given his name because of his appearance; that is; his female facial features and long hair. Had his monastery in Khentii aimag; Ömnödelger sum.
 
Khüükhen khutagtiin jüd (MON)
The tantric lineage introduced to Mongolia by Khüükhen khutagt.
 
Khüükhen khutagtiin khiid (MON)
Monastery of the 'Young lady khutagt'; which was located in the present Khentii aimag; Ömnödelger sum and was ruined in the purges.
 
Khüükhen noyon (MON)
The Noble Young Lady’; Öndör gegeen’s wife
 
Kino üildwer (MON)
Film Factory
 
Künz bogd (MON)
Confucius; Kong-tse
 
lagoi (MON) 
bla-gos (TIB)
 
upper robe'; a yellow coloured upper robe; a big shawl worn only by gelen monks
 
lal' (MON) 
kla-klo (TIB)
 
Mohammedan
 
lam (MON) 
bla-ma (TIB)
 
Monk; lama. In Tibet; it is used for only highly realised spiritual teachers; but in Mongolia for any member of an assembly (gelen; getsel; genen or barmarawjin).
 
lam nariin artel’ (MON)
communal handicraft co-operatives where ex-monks were forced to work from the 1920-30's on
 
Lamiin chodow / chodwa (MON) 
bla-ma'i mchod-pa (TIB)
 
Offering to the master'; Guru Puja; ceremony for Tsongkhapa; the teachers and masters who transmit the Buddhist Teaching
 
Lamiin chodwiin tsogchid (MON) 
bla-ma'i mchod-pa'i tshogs-mchod (TIB)
 
Guru Puja (offering to the masters) with a feast offering or accumulation of offerings (tsogchid; gana puja).
 
Lamrim = Bod' möriin zereg (MON) 
lam-rim (TIB)
 
gradual path' system introduced by Tsongkhapa; and the title of his main work. It means a gradual path to enlightment.
 
Lamrim datsan (MON) 
lam-rim grwa-tshang (TIB)
 
Monastic school specialized on the study of the 'Gradual path'.
 
lan (MON)
weight measure unit; Chinese uncia; 1 lan = 37;3 g
 
lawran / lawiran (MON) 
bla-brang (TIB)
 
1. palace; residence; 2. Labrang; a famous Yellow Sect monastery in Northern-Tibet; Amdo
 
Lawran jüd = see Jagarmolomiin jüd (MON) 
bla-brang rgyud (TIB)
 
Linsrai gawj Agwaanbaldan = see Agwaanbaldan (MON)
 
lkhaaramba (MON) 
lha-rams-pa (TIB)
 
the highest philosophical degree that could only be granted in Lhasa; once a year during the Lunar New Year
 
lkhadin (MON) 
lha-steng (TIB)
 
'Monastery'. Also was the name of a 10 meters high five-storey stupa-temple (Lkhadin süm) in Karakorum (the Mongolian capital from 1220). It was started under Öödei khaan (reigned between 1241-1246) and finished in 1256 under Mönkh khaan.
 
Lkham = Ökin tenger = see Baldan lkham (MON) 
lha-mo (TIB)
 
Lkham mamo tugan/ tugon/ tügon (MON) 
lha-mo thugs skong (TIB)
 
Name of a ceremony; held in honour of Shridevi and the wrathful 'mother goddesses'.
 
Lkham Shaljirmaa (MON)
Name of a goddess
 
Lkhamchoinzad dom (MON)
Name of a ceremony connected to philosophical exam dates
 
Lkhan-aa demchog / demchig = see Demchog / Demchig lkhan-aa (MON)
 
Lkhawaw(iin) düitshen = Burkhan bagsh tengeriin ornoos buuj irsen ödör (MON) 
lha-las babs-pa'i dus-chen (TIB)
 
‘descent [of the Buddha] from the god realm’; name of a festival which is held on the 22nd of the last autumn month; one of the 'great days of Buddha' (Burkhan bagshiin düitsen). It is the anniversary of the day when Buddha descended from the god realms; where he had spent 90 days teaching and performing the Khailen retreat.
 
Lkhawawiin dom (MON) 
lha-las babs-pa’i ston-mo (TIB)
 
‘festival of (Buddha’s) descent from the god realms’; name of a ceremony connected to philosophical exam dates
 
lkhogo (MON) 
lho-sgo (TIB)
 
south gate'; a part of ceremonies performed for the deceased
 
Lkhogtoi günreg/ Lkhogotoi günreg (MON) 
kun-rig-gi lho-sgo (TIB)
 
South gate of Günreg'. A ceremony performed in honour of Sarvavid Vairochana (Günreg) in order to help the dead to a better rebirth; to help them to reach the realm of Buddha through the south gate of his palace.
 
Lkhokh Jalsrai gegeen / Lkhakh Jalsrai Galsan Tüwden Jigjid gegeen = Jalsrai gegeen (MON) 
? rgyal-sras (bskal-bzang thub-bstan 'jigs-byed) (TIB)
 
Tibetan Yellow sect master of the 4th jewtsündamba; was also the main Kalachakra tantra lama of the 4th jewtsündamba and the 8th Dalai Lama.
 
Logiishurai = Logshir Janraiseg (MON) 
jig-rten dbang-phyug (TIB)
 
Lokeshvara 'the protector of the world'; a form of Avalokiteshvara; Logiishurai or Logshir being the Mongolian form of the Sanskrit term Lokeshvara.
 
Logshir Janraiseg = see Logiishurai (MON)
 
loilan / loilon (MON) 
blos bslangs (TIB)
 
relief mandala for meditation
 
Losalin (MON) 
blo-gsal gling (TIB)
 
Losel Ling; one of the monastic schools of Drepung monastery.
 
Losalin igchaa = Wanchin igchaa (MON) 
blo-gsal-gling-gi yig-cha (TIB)
 
Philosophical handbook or manual used in certain monastic schools; written by a Tibetan polymath; Wanchin Sodnomdagwa (Tib. pan-chen bsod-nams grags-pa; 1478-1554); which were originally used in Losaling monastic school of Drepung monastery in Tibet.
 
Lowanrünaa / Lowonrünaa (MON) 
slob-dpon lnga (TIB)
 
five masters'. Name of a tutelary deity; perhaps referring to the five Buddha families or their bodily forms.
 
lowombo (MON)
master
 
lowon (MON) 
slob-dpon (TIB)
 
1. 'master'; rank in the assembly 2. Lowon Badamjunai
 
Lowon Badamjunai (MON) 
slob-dpon pad-ma 'byung-gnas (TIB)
 
Padmasambhava; the 'Lotus Born Guru'; also known as Guru Rinpoche. He lived in the 8th century and introduced Buddhism into Tibet.
 
Lowon chogo = Lowon tseejüü (MON) 
slob-dpon-gyi cho-ga (TIB)
 
Name of a ceremony in honour of Padmasambhava. It is held on the 10th day of the lunar month in Red Sect monasteries.
 
Lowon tseejüü/ tseijüü = Lowon chogo (MON) 
slob-dpon tshes bcu (TIB)
 
the tenth of Padmasambhava'; name of a ceremony to Padmasambhave held in Red Sect temples on the 10th of the lunar month
 
lus (MON) 
klu (TIB)
 
Naga; water spirit.
 
lusiin khaan (MON) 
klu('i) rgyal(-po) (TIB)
 
king of the water spirits
 
Luwsankhaidaw = see Choijin lam (MON) 
blo-bzang mkhas-grub (TIB)
 
Luwsankhaimchog (MON) 
blo-bzang mkhas mchog (TIB)
 
This Tibetan monk came to Mongolia as the jawtüi lam of the jewtsündamba khutagt in 1915. Later he became the yonzon khamba (the last of the yonzon khambas); tutor of the jewtsündamba. He was the last khamba nomon khan bearing this title from 1920 until his execution in 1937.
 
Luwsanpeljee (MON) 
blo-bzang ‘phel rgyas (TIB)
 
Name of the speaker or translator lama of Choijin lam; who was able to understand and translate the mystical utterances of the oracle. He was also known as Daichin khamba (a honorary title).
 
lüijin/ lüüjin (MON) 
lus sbyin (lus-kyis mchod sbyin) (TIB)
 
Tantric body offering ritual; typical for Red Sect tradition; Zod.
 
Lümbümgaraw (MON) 
klu-'bum dkar-po (TIB)
 
‘White Scripture helping against the harmful influence of water spirits’ (originally it was a Bon text entitled klu-'bum sde-tshan dang-po); title of a text.
 
lünden (MON) 
lung-bstan (TIB)
 
issued command; prophesy; prediction
 
Lyankha dom (MON) 
pad-ma'i ston-mo (TIB)
 
‘Lotus feast’; name of a ceremony connected to philosophical exam dates.
 
lyankhuad garna (MON)
Excursion to the lotus'; an excursion to collect herbs for medical purposes.
 
Maan’ yerööl (MON) 
ma-n.i bstod-pa (TIB)
 
Name of a ceremony dedicated to Avalokiteshvara.
 
Maaniin büteel = Maaniin chogo (MON) 
ma-n.i sgrub (TIB)
 
A ceremony dedicated to Avalokiteshvara; reciting his magic formula many times
 
Maaniin chogo = see Maaniin büteel (MON) 
ma-n.i’i cho-ga (TIB)
 
maaramba (MON) 
sman-rams-pa (TIB)
 
physician'; professor in medical science; academic rank which can be obtained in a medical monastic university
 
mad'ig / mat'ig / madyog (MON) 
smad gyogs (TIB)
 
lower garment'; skirt; square shaped apron; a kind of garment worn only at certain tantric ceremonies
 
magtaal (MON) 
bstod-pa (TIB)
 
eulogy; praise
 
Maidar = see Jambaa (MON) 
byams-pa (TIB)
 
Maidar ergekh (MON)
Maitreya circumambulation'; when the statue of the future Buddha is mounted on a vehicle with green horse head and circulated around the monastery or town. Its main aim is to pray for the future Buddha’s (Maidar or Jamba) coming.
 
Maidar ergekh zam (MON)
the road of the Maitreya circumambulation'. Name of the road (goroo) encircling Züün khüree; which was the road of the Maitreya circumambulation.
 
Maimaa khot / Naimaa khot = Maimaachen (MON)
 
Maimaachen / Maimaichen = Maimaa khot / Naimaa khot (MON)
Maimai cheng in Chinese; commercial settlement with Chinese merchants and their stores (püüs). Also name of the Chinese town section in Ikh khüree.
 
Majiglawdonmaa / Machiglawdonmaa / Majiglawdon / Machiglawdon (MON) 
ma-gcig lab-sgron ma (TIB)
 
Machik labdrön; 'Only Mother Lamp of Dharma'. The great female founder of the lineage of the Zod (Chö; written as gcod in Tibetan) practice in Tibet; cutting through ego-clinging; living between 1055-1143. She was a disciple and consort of the Indian master Phadampa Sangye (Padamba sanjee; Tib. pha-dam-pa sangs-rgyas); the Indian mahasiddha who visited Tibet five or seven times; the last time in 1098; where he introduced the Pacification of Suffering (zhi-byed) teaching.
 
Makhamayaa (MON) 
sgyu-ma chen-mo (TIB)
 
Mahamaya; 'Great illusion'; name of a deity
 
Makhgal = Gombo; Ikh khar (MON) 
nag-po chen-po (TIB)
 
Mahakala; the 'Great black one'; one of the ten wrathful deities
 
MAKhN = see Mongol Ardiin Khuw'sgalt Nam (MON)
 
Makhranz = see also dörwön Makhranz (MON) 
rgyal chen (TIB)
 
great king'; Maharaja. Protector guard; direction king; one of the guardians of the four directions.
 
Makhranziin süm (MON)
temple of the four direction guards (Makhranz; dürwön Makhranz))
 
mam (MON) 
ma-mo (TIB)
 
Matari. Mother goddesses; sky-traveling demons; wrathful dakinis.
 
Manal / Manla (MON) 
sman-bla (TIB)
 
Supreme Healer'; the Medicine Buddha; Bhaishajyaguru; represented by blue colour. He is worshipped with the hope of healthy and long life.
 
Manaliin donchid (MON) 
sman-bla’i stong-mchod (TIB)
 
Thousandfold offering to the Medicine Buddha'. Ceremony in honour of the Medicine Buddha; held usually on the 8th of the lunar month. It includes a thousandfold offering and thousandfold circumambulation of his palace or mandala placed in the middle of the temple.
 
Manba / Mamba datsan = Emch nariin datsan (MON) 
sman-pa grwa-tshang (TIB)
 
Medical monastic school. Its main role; apart from medical studies; is to cure people by means of traditional medicine and to recite texts for a healthy and long life.
 
mandal (MON) 
dkyil-'khor (TIB)
 
Mandala; a symbolic representation of a deity's abode. A mandala offering symbolizes the offering of the entire universe.
 
mankhag (MON) 
sman khug (TIB)
 
medicine bag
 
mankhagtai em (MON)
medicine placed or stored in a medicine bag
 
manz / manj (MON) 
mang ja (TIB)
 
Tea for the assembly or assembled monks during a ceremony; literally 'tea for the masses'; or much tea; great quantity of tea'.
 
manzaach / manjaach (MON)
tea-deliverer; waiter-monk; a monk whose duty is to serve monks their tea and food during the ceremonies.
 
Manzshir (MON) 
'jam-dpal / 'jam-(dpal)- dbyangs (TIB)
 
Gentle one' or ''Gentle voiced One'; Manjushri; the bodhisattva of Wisdom.
 
Manzshir khiid (MON)
Famous monastery which once existed south of Bogd khan Mountain; near Zuunmod in Töw aimag. It was destroyed in the purges; only ruins remained. A palace building has been restored but is currently used as a museum.
 
Manzshir khutagt Tserendorj (MON)
One of the Mongolian khutagts; abbot of Manzshir monastery. The last Manzshir khutagt; Terendorj was executed in 1926.
 
Manzshiriin magtaal (MON) 
‘jam-dpal-gyi bstod-pa (TIB)
 
Eulogy of Manjushri'; title of a text
 
menge (MON) 
sme-ba (TIB)
 
’skin mole; birthmark’; characteristic positive or negative signs that recur invariably and with periodic consistency during astrological time cycles. Also the nine gods related to them.
 
Mergen gegeen (MON)
An incarnate lama; head of Mergen monastery (in Urad khoshuu; in present Inner-Mongolia) who had the principle role in the translation into Mongolian of Tibetan canonical works. The first Mergen gegeen was a disciple of Neyichi toyin. The third incarnation of Mergen gegeen; Luwsandambiijaltsan (Tib. blo-bzang bstan-pa’i rgyal-mtshan; 1717-1766); reformed the system of Mongolian recitation laid by Neyichi toyin.
 
Migjid Janraiseg = Janraiseg = Khonsüm / Khonshim bodisad (MON) 
mig 'byed spyan-ras-gzigs (TIB)
 
'open-eyed Avalokiteshvara'
 
Migzem / Megzem (MON) 
dmigs-brtse-ma (TIB)
 
Pure loving-kindness'; prayer to Tsongkhapa
 
Mindolin (MON) 
smin-grol gling (TIB)
 
name of a major Nyingmapa monastery (pronounced as Mindroling in Tibetan).
 
Mintüg(wa) (MON) 
mi 'khrugs(-pa) (TIB)
 
Akshobya Buddha; 'unshaken; unmoved'
 
modchin (MON)
carpenter
 
Mongol Ardiin Khuw'sgalt Nam (MAKhN) (MON)
Mongolian People’s Revolutionary Party (MPRP). It was established on 1 March 1921; as Mongolian People's Party; and renamed as Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party on 26 November 1924; when the Mongolian People’s Republic was declared. Was the ruling party of Mongolia from 1921 to 1996; and the only party until 1990. It was also the ruling party in Mongolia between 2000-2004.
 
Mongol Ulsiin Ikh Surguul' = MUIS (MON)
National University of Mongolia
 
mönkh (MON)
'eternal'
 
Mönkh khaan (MON)
Name of a Mongolian khan; grandson of Chinggis khan; son of Tolui; who reigned between 1251-1259.
 
mörgöl (MON)
worship; prostration; paying homage
 
MUIS = Mongol Ulsiin Ikh Surguul' (MON)
 
mutar (MON) 
phyag-rgya (TIB)
 
mudra; hand-gesture
 
Nagbo / Nagwuu Demchig (MON) 
nag-po bde-mchog (TIB)
 
Black Chakrasamvara
 
Nagwushawlügji Demchog (MON) 
nag-po zhabs lugs kyi bde-mchog (TIB)
 
Black Chakrasamvara
 
Naichün/Naichin Choijin (MON) 
gnas-chung chos-skyong / (also gnas-chung chos-rgyal) (TIB)
 
Name of a protector; oracle; originally the name of the state oracle in Nechung; near Lhasa.
 
Naidan (MON) 
gnas-brtan (TIB)
 
Sthavira; 'elder'; name of Buddha's main disciples; the sixteen sthaviras or arhats who vowed to preserve the Dharma until the coming of Maitreya.
 
Naidan chogo (MON) 
gnas-brtan cho-ga (TIB)
 
A ceremony during which the sixteen arhats; that is; the sixteen disciples of the Buddha who vowed to preserve the Dharma until the coming of Maitreya; are worshipped. It is held usually on the 30th of the lunar month.
 
Naidan jüdüg (MON) 
gnas-brtan bcu-drug (TIB)
 
The 'sixteen arhats'. See the term Naidan.
 
naljormaa (MON) 
rnal-'byor-ma (TIB)
 
Yogini; female practitioner (of yoga).
 
namdel / tsadma namdel (MON) 
(tshad-ma) rnam-'grel (TIB)
 
Commentary on valdi cognition/ logic'; pramanavarttika-karika; title of Dharmakirti's work on Buddhist logic; which is a commentary of Dignaga's work. Tsadma itself means valid cognition; logic (pramana); while namdel means commentary; elucidation (pramanavarttika). In Mongolian namdel is used in the meaning of 'logic'.
 
naminchlakh (MON)
confession of downfalls /sins; purification practice
 
namjir / namjar (MON) 
snam-sbyar (TIB)
 
A loose mantle for monks made with 32 patches; worn only by gelens. Sanghatiya in Sanskrit.
 
Namjira(a) datsan (MON) 
rnam-rgyal grwa-tshang (TIB)
 
Tantric monastic school of the Dalai Lama. Today it is situated in Dharamsala in India. Pronounced as Namgyal in Tibetan.
 
Namsrai (MON) 
rnam-sras (TIB)
 
Kuvera/ Vaishravana; the god of wealth; one of the ten protector deities. Also one of the four direction guards and guards the northern quarters.
 
Narkhajid (MON) 
na-ro mkha'-spyod (TIB)
 
Sarvabuddhadakini; emanation of Vajrayogini. A red coloured dakini worshipped on the 25th (or 10th and 25th) of the lunar month.
 
Nasnii büteel = Tsedew (MON) 
tshe-sgrub (TIB)
 
long life or longevity practice/sadhana; name of a ceremony to achieve longevity
 
natsagdorj (MON) 
sna-tshogs rdo-rje (TIB)
 
vishvavajra; a double vajra in the form of a cross
 
negdel (MON)
cooperative; agricultural co-operative; established in the 1930-50's in Mongolia
 
Niislel khüree (MON)
Khüree capital'; one of the old names of the capital city
 
ninchin (MON) 
bsnyen chen (TIB)
 
meditation
 
Nogoon Dar' Ekh (MON) 
sgrol-ma; sgrol ljang (TIB)
 
Green Tara; Shyamatara; one form of Tara; the Saviouress
 
Nokhoin nüürt = see Chidon (MON)
 
nom ailtgakh = nom unshuulakh (MON)
The practice of having texts read on request / on behalf of individuals in Buddhist temples or individuals homes; for donations or fixed prices.
 
nom ailtgakh khüleen awakh gazar (MON)
the reception room for ordering s?tras being recited for the request of individuals
 
nom khayaltsakh (MON) 
rtsod-pa (TIB)
 
debate; disputation
 
nom unshuulakh = nom ailtgakh (MON)
The practice of having texts read on request of individuals in Buddhist temples or individuals homes; for donations or fixed prices.
 
nomch lam (MON)
the one who is expert in the Teaching'; a honorary title
 
nomch mergen khamba lam (MON)
’wise abbot; expert in the Teaching’; a honorary title
 
nomiin khan = tsorj (MON) 
chos-rje (TIB)
 
khan of religion'; the original Tibetan term literally meaning 'lord of religion'; one of the high ranks in the assembly
 
nomiin khuwtsas (MON) 
chos-gos (TIB)
 
religious robe’; the collective name for different pieces of monastic garment of monks. Originally consisted of three kinds of garments (namjir; lagai/lagoi and tangoi (Tib. mthang-gos; lower robe; under garment).
 
Nomiin khürd ergüülekh/ (Burkhan bagshiin) nomiin khürd ergüülsen düitsen = see Choinkhor düitsen (MON)
 
Nomiin niileg (MON)
The Union of Religion'; an organization in Gandan monastery; started in the 1960’s with the aim of training young monks and preparing them for exams in philosophical studies. Also fulfilled scientific purposes such as publishing; on the initiation of professor B. Rinchen; Tibetan and Mongolian dictionaries; chronicles and other religious sources.
 
Nordog Damjin / Nordog Damjan (MON) 
nor-bdag dam-can (TIB)
 
owner of riches; wealthy oath-bound' (?). See Damjin.
 
Noyon khutagt Danzanrawjaa = see Danzanrawjaa (MON) 
bstan-'dzin rab-rgyas (TIB)
 
Noyon khutagtiin jüd (MON)
The tantric lineage introduced by Danzanrawjaa
 
noyon shüteen (MON)
'noble object of worship' Was also a name of an unique statue of Manal/Manla created by Öndör Gegeen.
 
nömör / nömörgön (MON)
refuge shelter; shelter
 
nuur (MON)
lake
 
Nünnai / Nügnai (MON) 
smyung gnas (TIB)
 
fasting ritual; fast; fasting practice or retreat
 
Nürshinbawuu Dolma (MON) 
myur zhi dpa'-po sgrol-ma (?) (TIB)
 
Name of a tutelary deity.
 
Nyamabiiyugdorjpagam / Nyamabiiyugdorjpagma (MON) 
rnying-ma-lugs kyi rdo-rje phag-mo (TIB)
 
Vajra Varahi ('diamon/Vajra sow'); name of a goddess worshipped by the Nyingmapa sect
 
nyamba / nyanba = dayaan (MON) 
bsnyen-pa (TIB)
 
’approach; come near; recitation; familiarization; propitiate a deity’; practice of approaching the yidam deity reciting his mantra; which is the first phase of tantric practice. A type of meditation in tantric practice.
 
Nyamba düwa (MON) 
bsnyen-pa sgrub-pa (TIB)
 
A special type of meditation in tantric practice; that of approach to the tutelary deity where one recites the mantra. Name of the meditation period; held for example before the Tsam dance.
 
Nyambawiin dulam / Dar’ ekh (MON) 
rnying-ma-pa'i sgrol-ma (TIB)
 
The Tara of the Nyingmapa Sect'; a form of Tara worshipped by the Nyingmapa Sect.
 
nyaraw (MON) 
gnyer-pa (TIB)
 
bookkeeper; treasurer; storekeeper; caretaker; one of the duties in monasteries
 
nyinmaa(ba/wa) (MON) 
rnying-ma(-pa) (TIB)
 
Nyingma or the Old School; one of the four main Tibetan sects. The teachings brought to Tibet and translated to Tibetan mainly up to the ninth century by Padmasambhava; Vimalamitra; Shantarakshita; and Vairotsana and other masters.
 
O. wan = see Osorbazar (MON)
 
ochir (MON) 
rdo-rje (TIB)
 
lord of stones'; vajra; thunderbolt; diamond; a ritual implement
 
Ochirdar' / Ochir barigch = Wachirdara (MON) 
rdo-rje 'dzin-pa (TIB)
 
Vajradhara; 'vajra holder'; name of a buddha
 
Ochirwaan' = Wachirwaan' (MON) 
phyag-na rdo-rje / phyag-rdor (TIB)
 
Vajrapani; 'the vajra bearer/holder' name of a bodhisattva
 
Ochirwaaniin magtaal (MON) 
phyag-na rdo-rje’i bstod-pa (TIB)
 
‘eulogy of Vajrapani’; title of a text
 
Oirad (MON)
Oyrat; Mongolian language group in Western-Mongolia; and in Kalmykia; Russia.
 
ordon (MON)
palace
 
orkhimj (MON)
the red coloured scarf worn over the left shoulder by monks
 
Oroin yerööl (MON) 
smon-lam (TIB)
 
'evening prayer'. A ceremony performed with the aim of promoting better rebirth for the dead and also gathering virtue. A special Oroin yerööl ceremony is Ikh yerööl or Choinpürel molom yerööl during Tsagaan sar.
 
Osorbazar = O. wan (MON)
Zorigt wan; Osorbazar living between 1841-1895; a Mongolian noble from Tüsheet khan aimag
 
otoch (MON)
doctor; physician; healer
 
owoo (MON)
stone heap on the peaks and crossroads for the worship of local spirits
 
owoodoi (MON)
A yellowish coloured pointed ceremonial cap worn only by ranked monks of the assembly; with a black brim and a ribbon at the back showing rank by its colours.
 
Ökin tenger = Lkham = see Baldan lkham (MON)
 
Öndgiin sürgiin nutag (MON)
The land of the herds and flocks of the egg'; an area in Ikh khüree reserved for the Bogd khaan and his kin and their herds and flocks.
 
Öndör gegeen Zanabazar = 1-r jewtsündamba khutagt; Luwsan dambii jaltsan = see 1-r bogd (MON) 
blo-bzang bstan-pa'i rgyal-mtshan (TIB)
 
See detailed explanation under the term 1-r bogd.
 
Öndör gegeenii düitsen ödör (MON)
The Great day of Öndör Gegeen'; on the 14th of the first spring month; commemorating the death of Öndör gegeen. See also Dawkhar yerööl ceremony.
 
Öödei khaan (MON)
Name of a Mongolian khan who reigned between 1227-41; third son of Chingis khaan; and the second great khan of the Mongols. He continued the expansion of the empire in Western China and Central Asia; and also in the west.
 
örgöö (MON)
residence; palace'; 1. a general term for palaces or yurt-palaces; 2. the residence or yurt-palace of Öndör gegeen; that moved to different places over time; being the cradle of the Mongolian capital city; 3. a term for Ikh khüree or Bogdiin khüree; which became known in Europe in its Russian form; Urga
 
örlög (MON)
general; leader of soldiers
 
örlög ekh (MON)
nanny; nurse
 
Padamba sanjaa / Badamba sanjaa (MON) 
pha-dam-pa sangs-rgyas (TIB)
 
Phadampa sangye; the Indian master and mahasiddha who visited Tibet five or seven times; the last time in 1098; where he introduced the Pacification of Suffering (tib. zhi-byed) teaching.
 
Pagwa lam (MON) 
‘phags-pa bla-ma (TIB)
 
Phagpa lama; famous monk of the Sakyapa Sect who lived between 1235-1280. State Tutor of the Mongol ruler of China; Khubilai Khan; compiler of the Phagpa script. He and his uncle; Sakya pandita (see the term Saja lam) had a main role in bringing Tibetan Buddhism to Mongolia.
 
Pandelamsan (MON) 
phan bde lam bzang (TIB)
 
Title of an important text on Lamrim; composed by Bar' lam Damtsigdorj (1781-1848).
 
Perenleijalwa / Perenleijalbuu / Perenleijalwuu (MON) 
'phrin-las rgyal-po (TIB)
 
Name of a deity; one of the Five Great Kings (tawan khaan)
 
pog = zed = zed pog (MON) 
phog (TIB)
 
wages; pay; salary'; donation; alms; money offered to monks of the community
 
powran (MON) 
pho-brang (TIB)
 
palace; castle; rsidence
 
püüs / püüz (MON)
pu zi/ pu li in Chinese; store
 
raibri jankhar (MON) 
ras-bris dkhyil-‘khor (TIB)
 
mandala painted on cloth or canvas
 
rashaan (MON)
holy water; spring; Sanskrit Rasayana
 
Rashaantiin khüree (MON)
Name of a monastic city; founded by Darwa bandida; situated in Sain noyon khan aimag; Mergen günii khoshuu; present Khöwsgöl aimag; Rashaant sum. For further information see Darwa/Darba bandid(a).
 
Rawjaa = Noyon khutagt Danzanrawjaa = see Danzanrawjaa (MON) 
rab-rgyas (TIB)
 
rawjambaa (MON) 
rab-'byams-pa (TIB)
 
omniscient; universally learned'; philosophical doctor; who obtained his title in Tibet
 
rawnai (MON) 
rab gnas (TIB)
 
consecration; consecration ritual
 
rigana = jodwon (MON) 
rigs lnga (cod-pan) (TIB)
 
five-lobed crown or headpiece; showing the five Tathagata Buddhas on its five sides
 
Rigsümgombo / Eregsümgombo = Gurwan yazguurtiin itgel = Tsedewgombo (MON) 
rigs gsum mgon-po (TIB)
 
Lords of the Three Families; the trinity of bodhisattvas: Avalokiteshvara; Manjushri and Vajrapani.
 
rinbüüchi / renwüüchi (MON) 
rin-po-che (TIB)
 
precious; gem; jewel'. Rinpoche; 'The precious one' is a title given to incarnate lamas who are considered to be the rebirth of a distinguished lama.
 
Rinjin / Ranjün Lkham (MON) 
rang-byung lha-mo (TIB)
 
an aspect of Shridevi worshipped mainly by the Nyingmapa sect
 
rinsel (MON) 
ring-bsrel (TIB)
 
relics; ashes of a saint lama as relics
 
Sagar = see Gazriin büjig (MON) 
sa-gar (TIB)
 
Saikhan Gombo = Gombo (MON) 
mgon-po (TIB)
 
the handsome Gombo'; see Gombo
 
Sain noyon khan aimag (MON)
one of the four khalkha aimags
 
Saja / Saje (MON) 
sa-skya(-pa) (TIB)
 
Sakya(pa); one of the four main Tibetan sects founded in the eleventh century by Drogmi Lotsawa ('brog-mi lo-tsa-ba); a disciple of the Indian master Virupa.
 
Saja lam / Saj lam (MON) 
sa-skya bla-ma (TIB)
 
Sakya pandita; famous monk of the Sakyapa Sect who lived between 1182-1251. He exercised political power on behalf of the Mongols. He and his nephew Phagpa lama (see the term Pagwa lam) had a main role in bringing Tibetan Buddhism to Mongolia.
 
sakhiul (MON)
guard
 
Sakhius = khangal / dogshid (MON) 
bstan-bsrung (TIB)
 
Wrathful deity; protector spirit. In Mongolian Buddhism the group of the ten wrathful deities protecting the Buddhist Teaching is specially worshipped. Also the name of the ceremony performed in honour of them.
 
salaa (MON)
branch (of the street; river; valley; also of tree)
 
san (MON) 
bsangs (TIB)
 
incense offering; a purification ceremony
 
san (MON)
treasury; store
 
Sandejig süm (MON) 
gsang bde 'jigs gsum (TIB)
 
The summary name (being the first syllables of their names) for the three main tantric deities of the Gelukpa tradition; namely Guhyasamaja (Sandui); Chakrasamvara (Demchig) and Vajrabhairava (Jigjid).
 
Sandui (MON) 
gsang-'dus (TIB)
 
Guhyasamaja; one of the three main Yellow Sect tantras and tutelary deities.
 
Sandui Jamdor / Sandui Jamdar (MON) 
gsang-‘dus ‘jam-rdor (TIB)
 
Guhyasamaja Manjushri
 
Sandui Mijid (MON) 
gsang-‘dus mi bskyod (TIB)
 
Guhyasamaja Akshobhya
 
Sanduin jüd (MON) 
gsang-'dus rgyud (TIB)
 
Guhyasamaja tantra; also name of a ceremony
 
sanga = agwa (MON) 
gsang-sngags-pa (TIB)
 
Follower and practitioner of 'secret tantra'. Tantric practitioner using secret magic formulas or manras.
 
Sanjidmolom = Yerööliin khaan (MON) 
bzang spyod smon-lam; 'phags-pa bzang-spyod smon-lam-gyi rgyal-po (TIB)
 
Title of a text; Arya Bhadracharyapranidhanaraja; 'prayer of good actions'; also called Yerööliin khaan; 'king of prayers'. One of the Six Prayers (Zurgaan yerööl).
 
Sanjidmolom khural (MON)
Sanjidmolom ceremony
 
Sanzaidorj; Zorigt wan (MON)
Also as Chin wan Sanzaidorj. Name of a Mongol amban of the 18th century.
 
sarawch (MON)
1. peak; visor; leaf-shaped peak of a cap; 2. shelter; shed; barn; sheepfold
 
Sariin düitsen ödör (MON)
monthly great day; monthly festival day. See düitsen ödör.
 
Seded = Tsagaan shükhert = Dugar /Düger (MON)
 
Sendom (MON) 
seng gdong-ma (TIB)
 
lion-headed dakini; Singhamukha
 
Senge aro / Sengiin aro / Senggera / Senggiin araw = Jalba senge aro / Jalba sengiin ar(o) (MON) 
seng-ge’i nga-ro (TIB)
 
'lion's roar'; name of a buddha
 
sentii (MON) 
seng-khri (TIB)
 
lion throne
 
Ser(a) je (MON) 
se-ra byes (TIB)
 
Ser jey; Name of a monastic school of Sera monastery
 
Sera (MON) 
se-ra (TIB)
 
Sera; one of the three main Tibetan Gelukpa monasteries near Lhasa.
 
Sera igchaa (MON) 
se-ra'i yig-cha (TIB)
 
Scholastic handbook or manual; written by a Tibetan polymath; Serji jewtsün Choijijaltsan.
 
Sereenen otoch (MON)
Doctor Sereenen; the Bogd khaan’s doctor
 
Seriin sanjid (MON) 
se-ra bzang-spyod (TIB)
 
Name of a ceremony originating from Sera monastery. See also Sanjidmolom.
 
Serji jewtsün Coijijantsan (MON) 
ser-gyi rje-btsun Chos-kyi rgyal-mtshan (TIB)
 
Tibetan polymath living between 1469-1546; composer of a philosophical handbook (Sera igchaa); used in Sera Jey monastic school of Sera monastery and in other Tibetan and Mongolian monasteries.
 
serjim (MON) 
gser-skyems (TIB)
 
golden drink' offering; libation; sacrificial pouring of a liquid (tea; vodka etc.); and the term for the liquid used for this.
 
serüün lawran / lawiran (MON) 
bla-brang (TIB)
 
summer palace; summer residence
 
Setsen khan aimag (MON)
one of the four khalkha aimags
 
shadar (MON)
near; close; near one'; a close attendant
 
Shagjtüw (MON) 
shakya thub-pa (TIB)
 
Shakyamuni Buddha; the Shakya 'capable one'
 
Shalsh = Shalshi (MON) 
zhal-bzhi (TIB)
 
four-faced Mahakala; one of the ten wrathful protector deities
 
Shambal (MON) 
sham-bha-la (TIB)
 
Shambhala (the Sanskrit term meaning 'place of peace/tranquility/happiness'); a legendary or mystical kingdom ruled by the 32 Kulika (Tib. rigs-ldan) kings one after another. This kingdom is mentioned in various Buddhist texts; including the Kalachakra Tantra (Düinkhor; Tsagiin khürd). Buddha is said to have taught the Kalachakra tantra at the request of a king of Shambhala; Suchandra (Diwasambuu); and the Kalachakra teachings are said to be preserved in Shambhala.
 
Shambaliin chogo (MON) 
shambha-la’i cho-ga (TIB)
 
name of a ceremony for the dead
 
Shankh Monastery (MON)
Name of a monastery in Shankh; present Öwörkhangai aimag; Kharkhorin sum; founded by Öndör gegeen around 1650. It was also called Baruun khüree.
 
Shanlan (MON) 
zhang blon (TIB)
 
Name of a protector deity; protector of doctors and medical colleges. A blue coloured wrathful deity with flaming hair; wearing a red robe and holding a jewel in his right hand; with an alms bowl in his left hand.
 
Shanlangiin chogo (MON) 
zhang blon-gyi cho-ga (TIB)
 
Ceremony in honour of Shanlan.
 
shanzaw / shanzodwa (MON)
administrator of ecclesiastical property; treasurer
 
shar ordon (MON)
Yellow Palace'; the palace of the Bogd; centre of Züün khüree.
 
shariin shashin/ shariin yos (MON)
Yellow Sect of Tibetan Buddhism; Gelukpa; also meaning generally Buddhism
 
sharil (MON) 
gdung; ring-bsrel (TIB)
 
relics; ashes of a saint lama as relics
 
shariliin süm (MON)
relics temple
 
sharjin (MON) 
shar byung (TIB)
 
arose; appeared'; name of the everyday reading in monastic schools
 
shashnii tölöölögch (MON)
representatives of religious affairs' from the 1920-1930's; appointed by the Party to supervise monastics and monastery affairs as a means of gradual oppression.
 
shaw' (MON)
1. 'disciple; pupil'; 2. Bondsman of a monastery; person subordinated to a particular monastery's ecclesiastical estate.
 
shaw’ nar (MON)
‘Disciples'; bondsmen of a monastery; people subordinated to a particular monastery's ecclesiastical estate.
 
shawran (MON) 
zhabs-drung (TIB)
 
‘at the feet of; in the presence of'; servant or attendant of a great lama
 
shii (MON)
shi in Chinese; Chinese theatre play
 
Shiirewnyamba / Shiirew nyambuu/ Sharaw nyambuu (MON) 
shes-rab snying-po (TIB)
 
the Heart Sutra; a famous Mahayana sutra
 
Shijir baatar (MON)
Zasag beil Shijir baatar. Famous hero who was the younger brother of Öndör gegeen Zanabazar. Also one of the two heroes; Büüwei baatar and Shijir baatar; who appear in certain Tsam dances.
 
shine yan (MON) 
dbyangs gsar (TIB)
 
new melody (of chanting)
 
shiniin (1; 2; 3...) (MON)
...standard of the lunar month'; for example shinii neg (shinii 1); first day of the lunar month; shinii hoyor (shinii 2); 2nd day of the lunar month...
 
Shinjishid (MON) 
gshin-rje-gshed (TIB)
 
Yamantaka. A wrathful form of Manjushri; 'Slayer or Destroyer of Yama; the Lord of Death'.
 
shinkhua (MON)
sien khua in Chinese; Manchu military barracks
 
shireet lam (MON) 
khri-pa (TIB)
 
‘throne-holder'; head monk; abbot of the assembly hall
 
Shireet Tsagaan nuur (MON)
Name of an old dried-out lake; a sacred site of Zanabazar in Öwörkhangai aimag; near his birthplace; where he was first given the title bogd or jewtsündamba khutagt; at the age of four. Later; in 1639; a yurt temple was erected in the same place; which became called Baruun khüree. This was the origin of the capital city (Ikh khüree; Bogdiin khüree; Urga...) that moved many times before finally settling in the present Ulaanbaatar area.
 
Shirnen düdog/düdeg (MON) 
sher-snying bdud-bzlog (TIB)
 
Heart Sutra exorcist ritual
 
Shiwdagdorma (MON) 
gzhi-bdag-gi gtor-ma (TIB)
 
‘sacrificial cake offering to the local spirits’
 
shönöjin lüijin (MON)
'All-night lüijin ceremony' held during the night.
 
shörgön khashaa (MON)
wooden hedge; a short cross-hedge surrounding a grassed space in front of a monastery; aimed at protecting it from bad spirits.
 
shunlaiw / shonlaiw (MON) 
gzhung lugs-pa / gzhung las-pa (TIB)
 
head of a philosophic monastic school
 
Shüg(den) = Dorjshüg(den) (MON) 
shugs(-ldan) (TIB)
 
Powerful/strong'; name of a wrathful protector deity; whose worship was forbidden by the Dalai Lama. He still continues to be worshipped in several Mongolian monasteries.
 
shüteen (MON) 
rten (TIB)
 
support'; object of worship; representation; physical embodiments of enlightened body; speech or mind; thus a picture; a sculpture or a book
 
Shüteenii örgöö (MON)
sanctuary; 'palace of the objects of worship'
 
sojin (MON) 
so-sbyong (TIB)
 
confession of sins; ceremonies performed in order to purify the precepts/vows
 
Songino (uul) (MON)
Onion (mountain)'; name of a mountain west of Ulaanbaatar
 
sor (MON) 
zor (TIB)
 
pyramid shaped wooden construction with a sacrificial cake (see sor zalakh)
 
sor zalakh (MON) 
zor 'phen (TIB)
 
The ceremony of the burning of the sor; that aims to remove of all bad effects and relieve natural disasters such as droughts; harsh winter cold; or contagious diseases and other negative phenomena.
 
Sosorbaram = see Baraishir (MON) 
so-sor ‘brang-ma (TIB)
 
Sotow / Seti / Seetew (MON) 
bse khrab (TIB)
 
’hide plates/corselet’; name of a guardian deity
 
soyombo (MON)
1. The first letter of the soyombo script invented by Zanabazar in 1686. It became a symbol of liberty and the Mongolian State. 2. the Soyombo script itself
 
sudar (MON) 
mdo (TIB)
 
Sutra; words of the Buddha; one of the three parts of the Tripitaka (gurwan aimag saw). Today it also means any holy book or text.
 
sudriin yos (MON) 
mdo lugs (TIB)
 
sutra tradition/system; tradition laid down in the sutras
 
sum (MON)
subprovince; administrative unit within the aimag (province); originally 'arrow'
 
Sundui (MON) 
gzungs-'dus (TIB)
 
collection of mantras and dharanis'; title of a text collection
 
suwraga (MON) 
mchod-rten (TIB)
 
stupa; 'receptacle or support of offerings'; reliquiary symbolic of enlightened mind
 
Süg(den) = see Dorjshüg(den) (MON) 
shugs(-ldan) (TIB)
 
süm (MON)
temple; shrine
 
sümbüm (MON) 
gsung-'bum (TIB)
 
1. 'complete or collected works' of an eminent monk 2. Sometimes used to mean a printing house (barkhan)
 
Süsegtnii kholboo (MON)
Association of Believers; name of an organization
 
Süün Dalai eej (MON)
milk sea mother'; name of the breast-feeding nanny of Öndör gegeen Zanabazar
 
Tagnuuliin Yerönkhii Gazar (MON)
State Intelligence Agency
 
taij (MON)
prince; noble
 
takhilch (MON)
offering maker; one of the duties in assemblies
 
Takhiliin büjig = see Chogar (MON)
 
Tamgiin süm (MON)
'Temple of the seal'
 
Tanton / Tantan = Tantonjalbaa / Tantanjalbaa (MON) 
thang stong (rgyal-po) (TIB)
 
Tangtong Gyalpo; a Tibetan siddha who lived from 1361 until 1485. He is considered to be one of the ‘seven miracles’ of Tibet. Legend tells that he was born in the 15th century from the womb of his mother as a 60-year old man with white beard. He was born in Tsang; Tibet at the time of Tsongkhapa. He visited India; China and many provinces of Tibet. He is well known for establishing the Tibetan opera called lha-mo. He founded numerous monasteries; among them a famous monastery in Lcags-po ri; the Medical College Hill; a sacred mountain in Lhasa. He also composed numerous works on medicine.
 
Tanton chogo (MON) 
thang stong-gi cho-ga (TIB)
 
Ceremony held in honour of Tanton/Tantan.
 
Tantonjalbaa / Tantanjalbaa = see Tanton / Tantan (MON)
 
Taog Choijil (MON) 
tha 'og chos-rgyal (TIB)
 
one of the five great kings (tawan khaan) or five regal buddhas
 
Tarawchamba (MON) 
thar-pa chen-po (TIB)
 
Great Liberation'; title of a text
 
tarni (MON) 
sngags; gzungs (TIB)
 
dharani; magic spell; magical formula
 
tarniin yos (MON) 
sngags lugs (TIB)
 
tantric tradition/ tantra system/mantra system (Mantrayana); tradition laid down in the tantric texts
 
tawan khaan (MON) 
sku lnga rgyal-po (TIB)
 
five great kings; the five regal or dhyani buddhas
 
tergüün (MON)
head'; head or leader of a temple or monastery
 
tersüüd (MON) 
log-par lta-ba (TIB)
 
six masters; holders of heretical doctrines defeated by Buddha
 
tertön (MON) 
gter-ston (TIB)
 
treasure revealer; discoverer of concealed books or teachings
 
toin (MON)
Monk; priest. Originally monk of princely or noble origin. Tao yen in Chinese.
 
Toinog / Toinag (MON) 
khros-nag; (ma-gcig) khros-ma nag-mo; khros-po nag-po (TIB)
 
1. 'black wrathful one'; fierce black goddess; aspect of Vajra yogini; 2. 'Black wrathful one'; a black coloured wrathful deity (see Toiwonagba)
 
Toinog dina (MON) 
khros-nag sde lnga (TIB)
 
group of the five fierce black goddesses (Toinog)
 
Toinog lkhagaa (MON) 
khros-nag lha lnga (TIB)
 
group of the five fierce black goddesses (Toinog)
 
Toiwonagba / Toiwonagwuu =Toinog (MON) 
khros-po nag-po (TIB)
 
'Wrathful black deity'
 
Toiwonagmo = Toinog (MON) 
khros-po nag-mo (TIB)
 
black wrathful one'; fierce black goddess; aspect of Vajra yogini
 
tokhoi (MON)
cubit; a linear measure unit; ratio of 1:0.32 metre
 
Tonbajin (MON) 
thod-pa-can (TIB)
 
The One with the skull'; an epithet of Chakrasamvara
 
torgon tsereg (MON)
silken army'; guards of the Bogd khaan
 
tow’ malgai (MON)
A kind of cap with four leaf-shaped peaks (sarawch).
 
töw üzel = see umaa (MON) 
dbu-ma (TIB)
 
Töwdiin khoroo (MON)
Tibetan quarter (one of the quarters in Ikh khüree; situated in one of the laymen quarters)
 
Töwkhön = Duwkhan (MON) 
sgrub-khang (TIB)
 
Dwelling for meditation practice; a building/cave or enclosure used for intensive meditation and practice; also the name of a hermitage; founded by Öndör gegeen; situated in Öwörkhangai aimag.
 
Tsagaan Dar' Ekh (MON) 
sgrol-ma dkar-mo; sgrol dkar (TIB)
 
The White Tara; Sitatara
 
tsagaan malgait (MON)
with White Hat'; name for Muslim monks
 
Tsagaan öwgön (MON) 
rgan-po dkar-po; lha chen tshe-ring (TIB)
 
The White Old Man; a deity depicted as an old man with long white hair and beard; carrying a dragon-headed stick. Also appears in the Tsam dances
 
tsagaan sar (MON)
White month'; the Lunar New Year during which special ceremonies are held in Buddhist temples.
 
Tsagaan Shükhert = Dugar = Seded (MON) 
gdugs dkar (TIB)
 
Sitatapatra; the female bodhisattva; 'Goddess with the White Parasol' protecting against obstacles
 
Tsagaan Shükhertiin dogjür (MON) 
gdugs dkar-gyi bzlog-bsgyur (TIB)
 
exorcist ritual to the 'Goddess with the White Umbrella' to turn away evil spirits
 
tsagaatgakh (MON)
(verb) rehabilitate someone politically; the act of declaring someone as innocent and so re-establishing that person's reputation
 
tsagaatgal (MON)
(noun) political rehabilitation; declaring someone as innocent and the re-establishment of that person's reputation
 
Tsam (MON) 
'chams (TIB)
 
masked ritual dance peformed in monasteries
 
Tsamba/ Tsanba (MON) 
tshangs-pa (TIB)
 
Brahma; one of the protector deities
 
Tsambashadag/ Tsambashidag (MON) 
tshangs-pa zhi drag ? / tshangs-pa gzhi-bdag ? (TIB)
 
peaceful and wrathful Brahma' (?); a form of Brahma.
 
tsanid (MON) 
mtshan-nyid (TIB)
 
characteristic'; philosophy
 
tsanid datsan (MON) 
mtshan-nyid grwa-tshang (TIB)
 
philosophical monastic school
 
tsaw (MON)
heat/hot'; 'warm drink/food'; dishes or food of the monks
 
Tsedew = see Nasnii büteel (MON) 
tshe-sgrub (TIB)
 
Tsedewgombo = Rigsümgombo = Gurwan yazguurtiin itgel (MON) 
tshe-sgrub mgon-po (TIB)
 
protectors of long life'; Lords of the Three Families; the trinity of bodhisattvas: Avalokiteshvara; Manjushri and Vajrapani.
 
tsedor = jiliin dorom (MON) 
tshe-gtor (TIB)
 
yearly ceremonial cake'; a kind of sacrificial cake
 
Tsedor danrag (MON) 
tshe-gtor gtang-rag (TIB)
 
'yearly thanksgiving offering' to Shridevi offered on Lunar New Year's Eve during the Tsedor lkham ceremony
 
Tsedor lkham (MON) 
tshe-gtor lha-mo (TIB)
 
yearly ceremonial cake offering to Lkham'; Name of a ceremony; during which a yearly offering is performed to Shridevi on Lunar New Year's Eve
 
tseejüü / tseijüü (MON) 
tshes bcu (TIB)
 
tenth'; the great day of Padmasambhava. Therefore tseejüü is the name of Red Sect ceremonies held on the 10th of the lunar month; in honour of Padmasambhava or other Red Sect deities.
 
Tsegmid / Tsewegmed = see Ayuush (MON) 
tshe-dpag-med (TIB)
 
Tsegmidiin chogo = Tsewegmediin chogo (MON) 
tshe-dpag-med-kyi cho-ga (TIB)
 
A ceremony worshipping Amitayus; the Buddha of Boundless life.
 
Tselkhanamsüm (MON) 
tshe lha rnam gsum (TIB)
 
the three deities of longevity: Amitayus (Tib. tshe dpag med); White Tara; (Tib. sgrol-dkar) and Vijaya (Tib. rnam rgyal ma).
 
Tsetsee gün (MON)
Name of the highest peak (2256m) of Bogd khan Mountain to the south of Ulaanbaatar; place of the annual state worship (also the site of an old but ruined temple).
 
Tsewegmed / Tsegmid= see Ayuush (MON) 
tshe-dpag-med (TIB)
 
Tsewegmediin chogo = see Tsegmidiin chogo (MON)
 
tsogchid (MON) 
tshogs mchod (TIB)
 
accumulation of offerings'; ganapuja; feast offering
 
tsogchin (MON) 
tshogs chen (TIB)
 
1. 'the great assembly'; everyday ceremony; daily chanting 2. Tshogchin dugan
 
tsogchin dugan (MON) 
tshogs chen 'du-khang (TIB)
 
main assembly hall in a monastery; used for the daily chantings
 
tsogchin gesgüi (MON) 
tshogs chen-gyi dge-bskos (TIB)
 
disciplinary master of the main assembly hall in a monastery
 
tsogshin = chuulganii oron (MON) 
tshogs zhing (TIB)
 
Assembly field; field of merit/accumulation'. Assembly tree representing a Buddhist master and the lineage a teachings transmitted through different deities and tutelary deities.
 
Tsogt khün taij (MON)
Khalkh prince (1580-1636); who fought against the Manchus. He lived in the present Bulgan aimag (his white palace and poem-inscriptions on stone steles are well-known) and supported Ligdan khan of the Chakhar Inner-Mongols against the expansion of the Manchus. His personal aim was to preserve the rule of the Karmapa in the Mongol areas. As the political situation changed; Tsogt taij had to escape from his residence and went to Kukunor in north-east Tibet; where he died before his army’s planned union with Ligdan’s army to resist the Manchus; and; very soon after; his army and the Ligdan forces were defeated by the Manchus.
 
Tsonlkha (MON) 
tshong lha (TIB)
 
the deity of trade; worshipped by Chinese traders and merchants. Has an elephant's head and resembles the Indian god Ganesa.
 
tsorj (MON) 
chos-rje (TIB)
 
lord of religion'; one of the highest ranks in an assembly and in Ikh khüree
 
tugdam / tugdum / tügdem (MON) 
thugs-dam (TIB)
 
1. 'oath; vow'; 2. 'meditation; practice'; 3. 'tutelary deity'; yadam
 
tugdam / tugdum / tügdem = ger tugdum (MON) 
thugs-dam (TIB)
 
palace or residence of a high lama or noble
 
Tuwaan Zonkhor (MON) 
thub-pa'i gtso 'khor (TIB)
 
Buddha and retinue
 
Tügjil düinkhor (MON) 
thugs-dkyil dus-'khor (TIB)
 
A kind of Kalachakra ceremony with a mandala.
 
Tüi / Tüisol (MON) 
khrus (gsol) (TIB)
 
ablution; cleansing ritual; also title of the text recited during a purification ritual
 
tümen gelen (MON)
ten thousand fully-ordained monks'; multitude of monks
 
tümet khangal/ tümt khangal (MON)
A kind of ceremony dedicated to the wrathful deities.
 
Tünlkha (MON) 
'khrungs lha (TIB)
 
birth deity' There is a deity for the day and exact time of a person’s birth; according to the combination of the elements of the birth-year. This deity must be given preference in prayer and in veneration by the person who is under its patronage.
 
Tüsheet khan aimag (MON)
one of the four khalkha aimags
 
Tüükhiin süm (MON)
historical shrine'; usually houses a carved stele with historic inscriptions
 
Tüwdenjamts (MON) 
thub-bstan rgya-mtsho (TIB)
 
13th Dalai Lama; 1876-1933. Stayed in Ikh khüree in 1904/05 after having fled from Lhasa from the invading forces of Younghusband.
 
Tüwiin chogo = Burkhan bagshiin chogo (MON) 
thub-pa'i cho-ga (TIB)
 
Ceremony in honour of the Buddha; held on the great days of Buddha (see also Burkhan bagshiin düitsen ödör).
 
Ulaan sakhius = Jamsran = Begtse (MON) 
lcam-sring / beg-tse (TIB)
 
the red Protector'; another name of Jamsran or Begtse; one of the protector deities.
 
ulaan shashin / ulaan yos (MON)
Red religion/Red tradition'; the Red Sect of Tibetan Buddhism; mostly Nyingmapa; as opposed to Gelukpa
 
Ulaan yum (MON)
version of Prajnyaparamita (Yum) written in vermillion ink
 
uls töriin khelmegdüülelt = khelmegdüülelt (MON)
(the era of) political persecution from the 1920's to around 1940; resulting in the arrest and execution of around 17;000 monks and hundreds or thousands of other ‘counter-revolutionaries’; that is; intellectuals like politicians; writers; thinkers; scientists and teachers.
 
Ulsiin Ekh Dagina / Ekh Dagina = see Dondogdulam (MON)
 
umaa = töw üzel (MON) 
dbu-ma (TIB)
 
Madhyamaka; 'middle way'; a Buddhist school of philosophy; the middle way meaning not holding any extreme views
 
umzad / unzad (MON) 
dbu-mdzad (TIB)
 
chanting master; rank in the assembly. During the ceremonies the chanting masters has the critical role in leading the reciting of texts.
 
urchuud (MON)
craftsmen
 
usan takhil (MON) 
chu gtor (TIB)
 
Libation; water offering; the ritual of offering water gtor-ma.
 
Usnii gudamj (MON)
Water street'; one of the streets in Ikh khüree
 
uul (MON)
mountain
 
Uuliin lam (MON)
‘the monk from the mountain’; name of a monk called Luwsan (Tib. blo-bzang); who meditated in a cave in Chingeltei Mountain where he is said to have obtained nirvana. He wrote a ritual text for the 8th jewtsündamba.
 
Uuliin lamiin chogo (MON)
A ceremony and title of a ritual text for the 8th Bogd written by Luwsan; or Uuliin lam.
 
Ürjin (Khand) (MON) 
u-rgyan/o-rgyan (mkha'-'gro('i gling)) (TIB)
 
Uddiyana; the country to the north-west of ancient India where Padmasambhava was born on a lotus flower. The literal meaning of Ürjin khand is '(the continent of ) the flying dakinis'.
 
üüdnii ger tugdum (MON)
'Yurt palace of the gate/situated at the gate'
 
üüdnii örgöö (MON)
'entrance palace'
 
üzüür tokhoi (MON)
cubit; a linear measure unit; equalling to the measure from the elbow to the end of the middle finger
 
Wachirdara = see Ochirdar' / Ochir barigch (MON) 
rdo-rje 'dzin-pa (TIB)
 
Wachirwaan' = see Ochirwaan' (MON) 
phyag-na rdo-rje / phyag-rdor (TIB)
 
wan (MON) 
dbang (TIB)
 
Initiation; empowerment; Sanskrit abhisheka. It means the conferring of power or authorization on the practice the Tantric teachings.
 
Wanchin igchaa = Losalin igchaa (MON) 
pan-chen yig-cha (TIB)
 
Philosophical handbook or manual used in certain monastic schools; written by a Tibetan polymath; Wanchin Sodnomdagwa (1478-1554); which were originally used in Losal Ling monastic school of Drepung monastery in Tibet.
 
Wanchin Sodnomdagwa/Sonomdagwa (MON) 
pan-chen bsod-nams grags-pa (TIB)
 
Tibetan polymath living between 1478-1554; composer of a philosophical handbook or manual (Wanchin igchaa or Losalin igchaa); used in Losal Ling monastic school of Drepung monastery.
 
Wangiin khüree = see Daichin wangiin khüree (MON)
 
wanshü / bansha (MON) 
pan zhwa (TIB)
 
yellow coloured pandita hat; a conical pointed hat
 
Wantai günreg (MON) 
kun-rig-gi dbang (TIB)
 
the initiation of Günreg'; name of a ceremony (Günreg) for the deceased; including an initiation
 
yadam (MON) 
yi-dam (TIB)
 
tutelary deity; meditational deity
 
Yadamiin süm (MON)
'Temple of the tutelary deity’
 
Yamba yosloliin khaalga (MON)
the door of privilege/prestige/authority'; the threefold main gate of monasteries
 
yampai (MON)
protective wall; the wall in front of a monastery's main gate; which protects it from harmful spirits (Chinese yang pai)
 
Yansan (yadam) = Damdin yansan (MON) 
yang-gsang (yi-dam) (TIB)
 
innermost; most secret'; A four-faced and six-armed tutelary deity with wings; and a horse-head in his hair; who is embracing his consort. He was worshipped by Padmasambhava; and is a main tutelary deity in Red Sect temples. Among the three main Gelukpa monasteries of Tibet; he is also the main tutelary deity in Sera and as such is worshipped in monastic schools following the manual book (igchaa) of Sera.
 
Yansan yadamiin chogo (MON) 
yang-gsang-gi cho-ga; yang-gsang yi-dam-gyi cho-ga (TIB)
 
Ceremony in honour of Yansan yadam
 
Yar khailen = Khailen; Yarnai (MON) 
dbyar khas-len (TIB)
 
Summer Oath-taking'; the annual summer retreat period of monks; in which gelen and getsel monks take part; that lasts for 45 days from the 15th of the last summer month. Held only in monasteries with at least four gelens.
 
Yarnai = Yar khailen; Khailen (MON) 
dbyar gnas (TIB)
 
summer retreat of monks; religious confinement durring the summer; summer fasting
 
Yegüzer khutagt / Yegzer khutagt (MON)
Yogacharya khutagt; one of the 13 main Mongolian khutagts also recognized by the Manchu. The last four incarnatons were born in Mongolia; namely Luwsandanzanrenchin; Luwsanbaldan; who founded his monastery in Setsen khan aimag; to the north of Erdene tsagaan owoo; at a place called Nomon dow; Luwsandanzannamjil; born in 1817; and the last one; Jamsranjawiin Galsandash who was born in 1870 and was captured and executed in 1930 during the purges.
 
yerööl (MON) 
smon-lam (TIB)
 
A literary genre. In Buddhism; it is the equivalent of the Tibetan genre smon-lam meaning prayer. It is also a kind of ceremony. See also Oroin yerööl; Choinpürel molom yerööl.
 
Yerööliin khaan = Sanjidmolom khural (MON) 
smon-lam-gyi rgyal-po; 'phags-pa bzang-spyod smon-lam-gyi rgyal-po (TIB)
 
Title of a text; Arya Bhadracharyapranidhanaraja; 'prayer of good actions'; also called Yerööliin khaan; 'king of prayers'. One of the Six Prayers (Zurgaan yerööl).
 
Yonzin Ishjantsan (MON) 
yongs-‘dzin ye-shes rgyal-mtshan (TIB)
 
19th century philosopher. He wrote a commentary entitled; ‘the sevenfold offering’ which is used in Gandan monastery during the ceremony in honour of the sixteen arhats or main disciples of Buddha (Naidan chogo) on the 30th of the lunar month.
 
yonzon (MON) 
yongs-'dzin (TIB)
 
tutor; master of an incarnated monk
 
yonzon khamba (MON) 
yongs-'dzin mkhan po (TIB)
 
Title of the tutor of the jewtsündamba khutagt; always appointed and sent by the Dalai lama. Luwsankhaimchog (1837-1937) was the last of the yonzon khambas; and since 1920 the main abbot (khambo nomon khan) of the whole Ikh khüree until his execution in 1937. The previous yonzon was Baldanchoimbel (1899); who had been the Tibetan teacher of the 8th jewtsündamba when the latter was young. He also bore the title khamba nomun khan from 1865-1899.
 
yum (MON) 
yum (TIB)
 
1. consort; mother; shakti in Sanskrit. 2. Prajnyaparamita sutra
 
Yum jai beren düisüm / Yum jaibriin düisüm/ Yum jawrii düisem/ Yuüm jai wrin düisüm (MON) 
yum rgyas 'bring bsdus gsum (TIB)
 
Collective name for three texts; namely (Ulaan) yum (Tib. yum dkar); Nit (Tib. nyi-khri); and Jadamba (Tib. brgyad-stong-pa) in 21 volumes
 
Yündendorj (MON)
Zorigt wan; Yündendorj (1778-1828); a famous governor (amban).
 
zaisan (MON)
chief officer
 
zan (MON) 
brtsan (TIB)
 
a kind of demon; powerful ghost
 
Zanabazar = Öndör gegeen; 1-r bogd; 1-r jewtsündamba khutagt; Luwsan dambii jaltsan (MON)
seem the term 1-r bogd
 
zangad (MON) 
btsan rgod /brtsan rgod (TIB)
 
warrior deities on horseback; represented in pairs
 
Zargachnii yaam (MON)
Chamber of Solicitors; the administrative board which organized the affairs of the Chinese
 
zasag (MON)
fourth-level officer
 
Zasagt khan aimag (MON)
one of the four khalkha aimags
 
zasal = zasliin nom (MON)
Text category. Remedy prayers; that is; texts read in order to correct bad states or conditions (illnesses; sufferings; misfortune or bad luck) and to secure prosperity; happiness or success.
 
zasliin nom = see zasal (MON)
 
Zawa lam Damdin (MON) 
rtsa-ba bla-ma rta-mgrin (TIB)
 
Famous Mongolian philosopher monk; living between 1867-1937; founder of many temples and composer of the last Buddhist chronicle; the Golden Annals.
 
Zaya bandid / Zaya khutagt / Zaya gegeen (MON)
On of the Mongolian khutagts; who was reborn five times in India; three times in Tibet; and seven times in Mongolia. His first Mongolian reincarnation was Zaya Pandita Luvsanperenlei (Tib. blo-bzang ‘phrin-las; 1642-1715); one of the most significant individuals in Mongolian Buddhism; who founded the monastic city of Zayaiin khüree in the area of the present day Tsetserleg town; Arkhangai aimag. The 15th reincarnation of Zaya Pandita; Luwsandanzanpüljinjigmed (Tib. blo bzang bstan-‘dzin phul-‘byung ’jigs-med) was recognized by the Dalai lama in 1989.
 
zed (MON) 
'gyed (TIB)
 
donation; alms; money offered to monks in a community (the original Tibetan verb also meaning 'distribute')
 
zed pog = zed = pog (MON) 
'gyed phogs (TIB)
 
donation; alms; money offered to monks in a community
 
zeerembe (MON) 
rtsis-rims-pa (TIB)
 
professor of astronomy and astrology; academic rank which can be obtained in an astrologic monastic university
 
Zimur / Zemer / Zemüra (MON) 
rtse-ma-ra/tsi-ma-ra or tsi’u dmar-po (TIB)
 
the protector deity of Samye monastery; the first monastery founded in Tibet
 
zindaa (MON) 
'dzin-grwa (TIB)
 
class; grade (in a monastic school)
 
zindaanii akhlagch = see jorwon (MON)
 
zoch / zodoch = joch / jodoch (MON)
A monk (eithter a man or a woman) practicing the tantric ritual of cutting the ego-clinging called zod in Mongolian.
 
zod / jod (MON) 
gcod (TIB)
 
'Cutting'. A tantric ceremony. It is a system of practices based on the Prajnyaparamita and set down by the Indian siddha Phadampa Sangye and his consort a Tibetan female teacher Majiglawdonma for the purpose of cutting through the four Maras and ego-clinging.
 
zodoch = see zoch / joch /jodoch (MON)
 
zolgokh (MON)
Ceremonial greeting at the Lunar New Year. Zolgokh is a traditional paying of homage or greeting practiced on the first days of Tsagaan sar when people visit and great their older relatives in a ceremonial way. In the temples; there is a set procedure for conducting the zolgokh; which is done with much ceremony: first to the highest ranked monks; then to the remaining ranked monks; and then to the other teachers; after which everyone greets everyone; always the younger the older; in the prescribed order.
 
zonkhon (MON) 
gtsang-khang (TIB)
 
sanctuary; shrine hall
 
Zonkhow / Bogd Zonkhow = Bogd lam (MON) 
tsong-kha-pa (TIB)
 
Tsongkhapa (1357-1419); reformer of the Tibetan Kadampa Sect; founder of Gelukpa or Yellow Sect; which became dominant in Mongolia in the 17th century.
 
Zonkhowiin düitsen = zuliin 25; Zonkhowiin taalal bolosn ödör (MON) 
tsong-kha-pa’i dus-chen (TIB)
 
The 'great day of Tsongkhapa'; the annual ceremony commemorating Tsongkhapa; held on the day he passed away.
 
Zonkhowiin taalal bolson ödör / Zonkhowiin mendelsen mön taalal bolson/tögssön ödör = Zonkhowiin düitsen; Zuliin 25-n (MON)
‘The day Tsongkhapa passed away’ or ‘The day Tsongkhapa was born and passed away’; the annual ceremony commemorating Tsongkhapa held on the day he was born and passed away.
 
zud (MON)
extremely harsh winter cold; causing death of herds and flocks; therefore being a catastrophe for the nomads
 
zuliin 25-n = Zonkhowiin düitsen; Zonkhowiin taalal bolson ödör (MON)
the 25th of the butter-lamps'; commemoration of the death of Tsongkhapa; on the 25th of the middle winter month; which includes the burning of thousands of butter-lamps.
 
zurgaan yerööl (MON) 
smon-lam drug (TIB)
 
'Six prayers'. The prayers known under this collective name are the following: Sanjid molom (Tib. bzang-spyod smon-lam); Sanja günla (Tib. sangs-rgyas kun-la); Dagii janchiw (Tib. bdag-gyi byang-chub); Chogjüü jalwa (Tib. phyogs bcu rgyal-ba); Püljin (Tib. phul byung); Gawaandi (Tib. dge-ba 'di)
 
zurkhai (MON) 
rtsis (TIB)
 
astrology; astronomy
 
zurkhaich (MON) 
rtsis-pa (TIB)
 
Astrologer; fortune-teller.
 
Zurkhain datsan (MON) 
rtsis-pa grwa-tshang (TIB)
 
Astrological monastic school where students specialize in astrology. Its main role is to tell fortunes; using astrology to warn or inform of specific days and months and their possible harmful and/or helpful impacts.
 
Zuu (MON) 
jo-bo (TIB)
 
Lord; Buddha
 
Zügüü Namnan (MON)
an epithet of Vairochana
 
Züjii dom (MON) 
... - ... ? ston-mo (TIB)
 
Name of a ceremony connected to philosophical exam dates
 
züün (MON)
(of the) left side; east(ern)
 
Züün khüree (MON) 
hu-re g-yas-pa (TIB)
 
1. Eastern monastic part of Ikh khüree; 2. A monastic city in Khentii Mountain (present-day Töw aimag) that was founded in 1654 by Öndör Gegeen Zanabazar. It was known also as Ribogeji Gandanshaddüwlin or Sardagiin khiid.