Manzushir khiid

Read in Mongolian

Name(s) of Temple :
Manzushir khiid,Manzushir khiid, Bituva ,

Rinchen Number :
424

Rinchen Name :
Manzushir khiid, Dashchoinkhorlin

Type of Temple :
Monastic City

Aimag Temple located in :
Töv

Sum Temple located in :
Sergelen

Old Aimag Name :
Tusheet Khan

Old Sum Name :
Manzushir khutagtyn ikh otog

Precis History(In Mongolian only):


Төв аймаг Сэргэлэн сум. Манзушири хутагтын хийд Хуучин Богдын их шавийн нутаг одоогийн Төв аймгийн Зуун мод сумаас хойш 8 км газар Богд хан уулын өмнөд ингэрт энэхүү хийдийг 1750 онд анхдугаар Манзушир хутагт Агваанжамбалданзан гэгч 13 тангад ламтай ирж газар шинжэж явтал цагаан чулуугаар маш уран сийлсэн нэг цагаан өвгөн, 15 Найдан бурхан газар доор булаатай байсан нь гарсан учир бэлэг учрал хэмээн энд хийдээ байгуулж дашчойнхорлин буюу “Өлзийт номын хүрд эргүүлэгч хийд” хэмээн нэр авчээ.Харин уг хийдийн үүсэн байгуулагдсан нөхцөл шалтгаан он цагийн тухай дараах түүхийн баримтууд эдүгээ бидний үед хадгалагдан ирсэн байна.Үүнд “...Харьяат шавийн аймаг савыг баригч Ачит Номун хан Донхор хутагтын арванхоёрдугаар үеийн хувилгаан Лувсанжамбалданзан Чин улсын Энх Амгалангийн гучиндөрөвдүгээр /1695/ онд Хөх нуурын газраа хувилгаан гарч Халхын газраа ирээд тэр цагт Жибзундамба хутагтад багш болсны учирт Тэнгэрийн Тэтгэсний дөрөвдүгээр /1739/ онд хаан сайшааж Аймаг савыг баригч ячит номун хан цол, тамга, жуух шагнан өгчээ.Арвантавдугаар /1750/ онд жанч халсан... Арвангуравдугаар үеийн хувилгаан Лувсантүвдэнванчиг Тэнгэрийн Тэтгэсний арванесдүгээр /1754/ онд Халхын газраа хувилгаан гарчээ... Түүний урьд үеийн хувилгаан Лувсанжамбалданзан түмэн өлзийн ном уншихын тулд Тэнгэрийн Тэтгэсний арвангуравдугаар /1748/ он шороон луу жил Хан уулын өвөрт сүм байгуулж нэрийг “Дашчойнхорлин” хэмээжээ Тэнгэрийн Тэтгэсний арвантавдугаар /1750/ он, цагаан морин жил Манзушири лам Лувсанжамбалданзан Хан уулын өвөрт буй сүмийг Богд Жибзундамба хутагтын гэгээнтэнд өргөжээ.Тэнгэрийн Тэтгэсний тавинзургадугаар /1791/ он, цагаагчин гахай жилМанзушири ламын хийдийг Зарлигаар “Буяныг залбирагч” хэмээн нэр соёрхов...” гэсэн баримт улсын төв номын сангийн сан хөмрөгт хадгалагдаж байна.Мөн Үндэсний төв архивийн фондод “...Хан уулын өвөрт Жибзундамба хутагтын харьяат Зарлигаар нэр шагнагдсан “Буянзалбирагч” сүм нэг.Үүний хэмжээ урагш, хойш хоёр зуун тавин алд.Баруун, зүүн тийш хоёр зуун алд.Үүнд таван зуу илүү лам нар сууж хурал сургууль үйлдэж, өдөр бүр Дээдийн түмэн өлзийг бататгах хийгээд нийт амьтны тусын тулд ном уншина...” гэсэн баримт байна.Хийд улам өргөжин хөгжсөөр 20-р зууны эхэн үед төвд маягийн 2 давхар Цогчин дуган, өвгөн Лаврин, Жүд, Мамбын дуган, Ёго-Ядам, Найдан, Аюуш, Майдар зэрэг сүм гомон дуган зэрэг 20 гаруй сүм дугантай 350 ламтай, хийдийн голын хоёр талаар Баруун зүүн хүрээ, овооны өврийн хар борчуудын хорооноос бүрдэж байв.Сахиус Чойжоо зэрэг бурханы дүрийг харуулсан 50-60 лам оролцсон Цам гарч, зуны адаг сарын 20-нд Майдар эргэдэг заншилтай байжээ.Мөн Хайлан хурах, Нүгнээ сахих, Ганжуур эргэх зэрэг шашин номын зан үйлийг тогтоосон дэг хугацаанд тогтмол явуулдаг байна.Уг хийдийн хурал номын дэг аяданБогдын хүрээний дэгтэй байсан гэдэг. 1937 оныөвлийн сүүл сарын 17-ний шинэ ДЯЯ-ны төлөөлөгч Лувсанжамбаа 2 ачааны машинтай, 2 хүнтэй ирж лам нарыг НаваандооГавжийн хашаанд цуглуулан хашиж байгаад 50 гаруй томоохон лам, оточ, зурхайчдыг нь баривчлан хороожээ. Одоо энэ хийдийн туурь дээр шашны, байгалийн музейнүүд байгуулагдан гадаад дотоодын жуулчдын очих дуртай газрын нэг болжээ.Дашчойнхорли нхурал нь 1989 оноос Төв аймгийн Зуун мод сумын төвд сэргээгдэж Цогчин болон Манба, Дарь эхийн дугантай 50 орчим ламтай хурал номын үйл эрхэлж байна. Холбогдох эх сурвалж: 1.Ч.Банзрагч Б.Сайнхүү “Монголын хүрээ хийдийн түүх” УБ 2004 2.Л.Хэнчяахав “Төв аймгийн бага толь” УБ 1993 3.Манзуширийн хийдийн Сүм музейн тайлбарлагч Батцоожтой хийсэн ярилцлагаас /2007.11.04/

Description of location :
The place in which the temple was situated looks like a flying garuda and a prone lion and is sacred place. Zuun modny river is next to the site, to the east there is East modny am, to the west of the site is West modny am and Ovoony enger is to south east.   

GPS readings :
North 47° 45’  East 106°  59’

Revived temple on site :
No

Status of site at time of survey :
The base of the main temple and some pillars and other bases are left. Next to the Zuun Ovoo, Holiday camp`s gers were built on the left of some ger bases. Buildings for natural museum named Manzushir in 1973, and money exchange service were build and, in 1993, the summer palace of Manzushir khutagt reopened as a religious museum.

Site used for other purpose :
They are used as museum.

Date of founding the monastery/temple :
1737
1733

Date of closing and destroying the monastery :
Огноо хаагдсан: 1937 - Ярилцлагын дугаар:001
Огноо хаагдсан: 1937 - Ярилцлагын дугаар:002
Огноо нураагдсан:: 1938 - Ярилцлагын дугаар:001
Огноо нураагдсан:: 1938-40 - Ярилцлагын дугаар:002

Site used for other purpose :
They are used as museum.

Old monastery/temple revived:
Yes

Revived temple register number:
ТӨЗМ 001

Үүсгэн байгуулагч хүний нэр болон цол хэргэм (мэдэгдэж байвал):
Нэр, цол хэргэм : Naidan the 1st khamba lama - Ярилцлагын дугаар: 001
Нэр, цол хэргэм : Шагдарсүрэн, Сэдэд зэрэг 7н хүн - Ярилцлагын дугаар:
Нэр, цол хэргэм : Манзушир хутагт - Ярилцлагын дугаар: 001
Нэр, цол хэргэм : Манзушир хутагт 2р дүр Рэнцэндорж - Ярилцлагын дугаар: 002

Date of Reviving:
Year : 3rd day of midsummer month of 1990 - Ярилцлагын дугаар: 001

Monks in Old Temple :
About 300 lamas
100-300 lamas

Notes :
#001 Oral information given by D.Dashnyam, gesgui lama for Reopened Manzushir temple. In 1737, the foundation stone of the temple was laid. The place to establish the temple was being determined by using smouldering juniper and indicated the place of North Mountain. Here, the smoke of juniper rose up smoothly. Then the foundation stone of the temple was laid at the ger base of Tulga, an old lama. In 1743, the Main temple named Dashchoinkhorlin in Tibetan, was completed a religious services were held. There were 300 lamas. When the numbers of the students of Manzushir khutagt reach at 1000, 700 were sent to study in Dashchoimbol datsan in Gandantegchinlen monastery. The first chief bishop was 2nd Bogd, and first gesgui was Manzushir khutagt of Dashchoimbol, where the students study Buddhist philosophy. There were monthly religious dances, intellectual Buddhist debate and everyday religious services at the temple. According to the registration (report), which was written in 1937, there were 9 buildings, about 110 lamas at the temple. The main shrine of the temple was Logshir Janraisag besides the Sandui and Jigjid. During the repression time low-level lamas became laymen and high status lamas were killed. People recount the legends of how Manzushir khutagt was saved: once he was shot but the bullet fell down directly and could not reach him. That time the chief bishop of Gandan told him “It is time to go back for us. Let`s think about reincarnating quickly.” The temple was closed and ruined between 1937-1938. The shrine and books of the temple were hidden. In 1990, Logshir Janraisag, the main shrine was found by a local person who was herding sheep on the northern mountain. The buildings and temples were built with raw bricks. Roofs were wooden and foundations were natural stone. The buildings and temples are skilful and were built in Tibetan style. #002 Oral information given by Ariunzul, curator at Aimag museum. In 1733, the 2nd reincarnated lama of Manzushir khutagt Rentsendorj and seven Tibetan lamas who were exploring the land to decide where to build a temple found a Naidan, six Tsagaan uvguns made of jade at the base of the ger belonging to an old man named Tulga. Then they broke ground at the place. From 1733 till 1910, there were totally 21 buildings with 17 temples, 1,000 people , 500 families. Lamas lived on the southwest side and the poor people and craftsmen lived on the northeast side of the temple. 200-300 lamas held a religious service every day in the main temple, which was built in 1749,. Temple`s last bishop was 6th reincarnated lama of Manzushir khutagt and he was victimised and killed on 23rd, October 1937 with 53 other high ranking lamas. Then the temple was set afire. In 1993, the summer palace for Manzushir khutagt was rebuilt as a branch religious museum of Tuv aimag museum. Every year 12,000-15,000 tourists and visitors come to see it. Craftsman Dagva, a student of Manzushir khutagt created Sanduin jud, Dorjzodov sutras with 52.6kg silver, gold and 9 jewels at the request of Manzushir khutagt in 1907-1911. The khutagt used it himself and gave it to ?. Now it is kept as a unrivalled precious cultural heritage. Most of the buildings and temples were built with raw bricks. Style is in Tibetan and Mongolian. The temple area became as specially protected place in 1994. 1.Bituva- means beauty of perfect. There are such two places in Mongolia. The first one is the temple of Manzushir. The second one is Baldan Baraivun in Umnudelger soum, Khentii aimag. Everyday religious service, Rigsungombo, Goviin lkha were held and religious dance and Tsam also were performed. Total number of temple buildings in the monastic complex were 17-21. The measure is 360 jan which means long is 18 meter and width is 12 meter totally 700-800 m2. The younger brother of the 2nd Manzushir khutagt whose name is Mur was a skilful and enlightened lama. He knew that he would be arrested and sent his relatives to southeast a month before he was. When the people from the Ministry of Internal Affairs came to arrest him at his home, he had passed away as he was sitting down. The monastery had jases, which ran the economic and financial activities. When the number of lamas at temple reached at 200, the Bogd gegeen divided them into administrative units. Chinese traders came to the monastery when a special ceremony such as the religious dance, Tsam, were held. The Bogd khan mountain has been worshipped in Mongolia since Tooril van khan of Khereid sacrificed it with red offering in shamanism over 800 years. It was the first mountain to be worshipped in Mongolia. Minister Yunrendorj and Bogd gegeen submitted report to the King of Manchu to worship Bogd mountain. After that the Bogd mountain is worshipped every year. The worship of the mountain was held on the other side of the mountain, on the southeast side of Tur Khurakh and Shajin Khurakh. There is Lama ovoo which worshipped at the 3rd day of the 1st summer month. According to the order of Ministry of Internal Affairs, a person named Luvsan played a leading role in ruining the temple. From the time the monastery was destroyed in 1937, it lay unused until the visit of Yu.Tsedenbal, general secratery of Council of Ministries in 1969. He said that it is a historical and cultural memorable place and should be revived. In the middle of 1970s, some constructions were revived. In 1993, summer palace of Manzushir khutagt and natural museum were revived. 8.They are now belong to Tuv aimag musuem. There is a charm ger next to the Main temple and downhill from here there are camp gers. It has become a destination for people at weekends.

Form Number :
ТӨСЭ 063

Survey Team :
Team А

Газрын зураг / Map

Additional Material / Нэмэлт материал

Архивын зургууд / Archive photographs

Site Plan

Site plan drawn by surveyors